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How To Optimize Your Marketing Campaigns For Higher Quality Leads

How excited would you be if you doubled the number of leads your marketing campaign was generating in less than a month? What if you found out that the improvement wasn’t an improvement at all, because as lead quantity went up, lead quality was going down? That’s exactly what happened with a campaign I ran once. I can assure you – it’s not fun! One survey of B2B marketers found that their #1 and #2 challenges were generating high quality leads and converting leads into customers: Your Landing Page Conversion Rate Is Only Half Of The Story Converting visitors to leads…

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How To Optimize Your Marketing Campaigns For Higher Quality Leads

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What Happens After The Conversion? How To Optimize Your Marketing Campaigns For Higher Quality Leads

How excited would you be if you doubled the number of leads your marketing campaign was generating in less than a month? What if you found out that the improvement wasn’t an improvement at all, because as lead quantity went up, lead quality was going down? That’s exactly what happened with a campaign I ran once. I can assure you – it’s not fun! One survey of B2B marketers found that their #1 and #2 challenges were generating high quality leads and converting leads into customers: Your Landing Page Conversion Rate Is Only Half Of The Story Converting visitors to leads…

The post What Happens After The Conversion? How To Optimize Your Marketing Campaigns For Higher Quality Leads appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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What Happens After The Conversion? How To Optimize Your Marketing Campaigns For Higher Quality Leads

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Cheerful Desktop Wallpapers To Kick Off June (2018 Edition)




Cheerful Desktop Wallpapers To Kick Off June (2018 Edition)

Cosima Mielke



We all need a little inspiration boost every once in a while. And, well, whatever your strategy to get your creative juices flowing might be, sometimes inspiration lies closer than you think. As close as your desktop even.

Since more than nine years, we’ve been asking the design community to create monthly desktop wallpaper calendars. Wallpapers that are a bit more distinctive as what you’ll usually find out there, bound to cater for a little in-between inspiration spark. Of course, it wasn’t any different this time around.

This post features wallpapers for June 2018. All of them come in versions with and without a calendar, so it’s up to you to decide if you want to have the month at a glance or keep things simple. As a bonus goodie, we also collected some timeless June favorites from past years for this edition (please note that they thus don’t come with a calendar). A big thank-you to all the artists who have submitted their wallpapers and are still diligently continuing to do so. It’s time to freshen up your desktop!

Please note that:

  • All images can be clicked on and lead to the preview of the wallpaper,
  • You can feature your work in our magazine by taking part in our Desktop Wallpaper Calendar series. We are regularly looking for creative designers and artists to be featured on Smashing Magazine. Are you one of them?

Travel Time

“June is our favorite time of the year because the keenly anticipated sunny weather inspires us to travel. Stuck at the airport, waiting for our flight but still excited about wayfaring, we often start dreaming about the new places we are going to visit. Where will you travel to this summer? Wherever you go, we wish you a pleasant journey!” — Designed by PopArt Studio from Serbia.

Travel Time

Tropical Vibes

“With summer just around the corner, I’m already feeling the tropical vibes.” — Designed by Melissa Bogemans from Belgium.

Tropical Vibes

No Matter What, I’ll Be There

“June is the month when we celebrate our dads and to me the best ones are the ones that even if they don’t like what you are doing they’ll be by your side.” — Designed by Maria Keller from Mexico.

No Matter What, I’ll Be There

We Sailed Across The Summer Sea

“Summer is the season of family trips, outings and holidays. What better way is there to celeberate Father’s Day, than to enjoy the summer sailing across with father beloved.” — Designed by The Whisky Corporation from Singapore.

We Sailed Across The Summer Sea

Sounds Of Rain

“When it rains the world softens and listens to the gentle pattering of the rain. It gets covered in a green vegetation and puddles reflect the colors of nature now looking fresh and cleansed. The lullaby of the rain is accustomed to creaky frogs and soft chirping birds taking you to ecstasy.” — Designed by Aviv Digital from India.

Sounds Of Rain

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SmashingConf Toronto

“What’s the best way to learn? By observing designers and developers working live. For our new conference in Toronto, the speakers aren’t allowed to use any slides at all. Welcome SmashingConf #noslides, a brand new conference in Toronto, full of interactive live sessions, showing how web designers design and how web developers build — including setup, workflow, design thinking, naming conventions and everything in-between.” — Designed by Ricardo Gimenes from Brazil.

Smashing Conference Toronto 2018

Are You Ready?

“The excitement is building, the slogans are ready, the roaring and the cheering make their way… Russia is all set for the football showdown. Are you ready?” — Designed by Sweans from London.

Are You Ready?

Summer Surf

“Summer vibes…” — Designed by Antun Hirsman from Croatia.

Summer Surf

Stop Child Labor

“‘Child labor and poverty are inevitably bound together, and if you continue to use the labor of children as the treatment for the social disease of poverty, you will have both poverty and child labor to the end of time.’ (Grace Abbott)” — Designed by Dipanjan Karmakar from India.

Stop Child Labor

June Best-Of

Some things are too good to be forgotten. That’s why we dug out some June favorites from our archives. Please note that these don’t come with a calendar because of this. Enjoy!

Oh, The Places You Will Go!

“In celebration of high school and college graduates ready to make their way in the world!” — Designed by Bri Loesch from the United States.

Oh the places you will go

Join The Wave

“The month of warmth and nice weather is finally here. We found inspiration in the World Oceans Day which occurs on June 8th and celebrates the wave of change worldwide. Join the wave and dive in!” — Designed by PopArt Studio from Serbia.

Join The Wave

Solstice Sunset

“June 21 marks the longest day of the year for the Northern Hemisphere – and sunsets like these will be getting earlier and earlier after that!” — Designed by James Mitchell from the United Kingdom.

Solstice Sunset

Midsummer Night’s Dream

“The summer solstice in the northern hemisphere is nigh. Every June 21 we celebrate the longest day of the year and, very often, end up dancing like pagans. Being landlocked, we here in Serbia can only dream about tidal waves and having fun at the beach. What will your Midsummer Night’s Dream be?” — Designed by PopArt Studio from Serbia.

Midsummer Night’s Dream

Flamingood Vibes Only

“I love flamingos! They give me a happy feeling that I want to share with the world.” — Designed by Melissa Bogemans from Belgium.

Flamingood Vibes Only

Papa Merman

“Dream away for a little while to a land where June never ends. Imagine the ocean, feel the joy of a happy and carefree life with a scent of shrimps and a sound of waves all year round. Welcome to the world of Papa Merman!” — Designed by GraphicMama from Bulgaria.

Papa Merman

Strawberry Fields

Designed by Nathalie Ouederni from France.

Strawberry Fields

Fishing Is My Passion!

“The month of June is a wonderful time to go fishing, the most soothing and peaceful activity.” — Designed by Igor Izhik from Canada.

Fishing Is My Passion!

Summer Time

“Summer is coming so I made this simple pattern with all my favorite summer things.” — Designed by Maria Keller from Mexico.

Summer Time

The Amazing Water Park

“Summer is coming. And it’s going to be like an amazing water park, full of stunning encounters.” — Designed by Netzbewegung / Mario Metzger from Germany.

The Amazing Water Park

Gravity

Designed by Elise Vanoorbeek (Doud Design) from Belgium.

Gravity

Periodic Table Of HTML5 Elements

“We wanted an easy reference guide to help navigate through HTML5 and that could be updateable” — Designed by Castus from the UK.

Periodic Table Of HTML5 Elements

Ice Creams Away!

“Summer is taking off with some magical ice cream hot air balloons.” — Designed by Sasha Endoh from Canada

Ice Creams Away!

Lavender Is In The Air!

“June always reminds me of lavender — it just smells wonderful and fresh. For this wallpaper I wanted to create a simple, yet functional design that featured… you guessed it… lavender!” — Designed by Jon Phillips from Canada.

Lavender Is In The Air!

Ice Cream June

“For me, June always marks the beginning of summer! The best way to celebrate summer is of course ice cream, what else?” — Designed by Tatiana Anagnostaki from Greece.

Ice cream June

Join In Next Month!

Please note that we respect and carefully consider the ideas and motivation behind each and every artist’s work. This is why we give all artists the full freedom to explore their creativity and express emotions and experience throughout their works. This is also why the themes of the wallpapers weren’t anyhow influenced by us, but rather designed from scratch by the artists themselves.

Thank you to all designers for their participation. Join in next month!


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Cheerful Desktop Wallpapers To Kick Off June (2018 Edition)

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User Experience Testing: UX Methods and Tools

user-experience-testing-12

User experience testing often scares entrepreneurs and marketers. It seems like a daunting task, especially if you have lots of products or lots of pages on your website. However, it’s essential if you want more conversions. ClickMechanic conducted extensive user experience testing before relaunching its website. The testing resulted in an impressive 50 percent increase in conversions. Furthermore, a Magnetic North study revealed that more than 90 percent of respondents had had a poor user experience, and that about 33 percent reported they would abandon an online shopping cart due to poor UX. Clearly, there’s a correlation between user experience…

The post User Experience Testing: UX Methods and Tools appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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User Experience Testing: UX Methods and Tools

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Building A Central Logging Service In-House




Building A Central Logging Service In-House

Akhil Labudubariki



We all know how important debugging is for improving application performance and features. BrowserStack runs one million sessions a day on a highly distributed application stack! Each involves several moving parts, as a client’s single session can span multiple components across several geographic regions.

Without the right framework and tools, the debugging process can be a nightmare. In our case, we needed a way to collect events happening during different stages of each process in order to get an in-depth understanding of everything taking place during a session. With our infrastructure, solving this problem became complicated as each component might have multiple events from their lifecycle of processing a request.

That’s why we developed our own in-house Central Logging Service tool (CLS) to record all important events logged during a session. These events help our developers identify conditions where something goes wrong in a session and helps keep track of certain key product metrics.

Debugging data ranges from simple things like API response latency to monitoring a user’s network health. In this article, we share our story of building our CLS tool which collects 70G of relevant chronological data per day from 100+ components reliably, at scale and with two M3.large EC2 instances.

The Decision To Build In-House

First, let’s consider why we built our CLS tool in-house rather than used an existing solution. Each of our sessions sends 15 events on average, from multiple components to the service – translating into approximately 15 million total events per day.

Our service needed the ability to store all this data. We sought a complete solution to support event storing, sending and querying across events. As we considered third-party solutions such as Amplitude and Keen, our evaluation metrics included cost, performance in handling high parallel requests and ease of adoption. Unfortunately, we could not find a fit that met all our requirements within budget – although benefits would have included saving time and minimizing alerts. While it would take additional effort, we decided to develop an in-house solution ourselves.


Building in-house


One of the biggest issues with building In-house is the amount of resources that we need to spend to maintain it. (Image credit: Source: Digiday)

Technical Details

In terms of architecting for our component, we outlined the following basic requirements:

  • Client Performance
    Does not impact the performance of the client/component sending the events.
  • Scale
    Able to handle a high number of requests in parallel.
  • Service performance
    Quick to process all events being sent to it.
  • Insight into data
    Each event logged needs to have some meta information to be able to uniquely identify the component or user, account or message and give more information to help the developer debug faster.
  • Queryable interface
    Developers can query all events for a particular session, helping to debug a particular session, build component health reports, or generate meaningful performance statistics of our systems.
  • Faster and easier adoption
    Easy integration with an existing or new component without burdening teams and taking up their resources.
  • Low maintenance
    We are a small engineering team, so we sought a solution to minimize alerts!

Building Our CLS Solution

Decision 1: Choosing An Interface To Expose

In developing CLS, we obviously didn’t want to lose any of our data, but we didn’t want component performance to take a hit either. Not to mention the additional factor of preventing existing components from becoming more complicated, since it would delay overall adoption and release. In determining our interface, we considered the following choices:

  1. Storing events in local Redis in each component, as a background processor pushes it to CLS. However, this requires a change in all components, along with an introduction of Redis for components which didn’t already contain it.
  2. A Publisher – Subscriber model, where Redis is closer to the CLS. As everyone publishes events, again we have the factor of components running across the globe. During the time of high-traffic, this would delay components. Further, this write could intermittently jump up to five seconds (due to the internet alone).
  3. Sending events over UDP, which offers a lesser impact on application performance. In this case data would be sent and forgotten, however, the disadvantage here would be data loss.

Interestingly, our data loss over UDP was less than 0.1 percent, which was an acceptable amount for us to consider building such a service. We were able to convince all teams that this amount of loss was worth the performance, and went ahead to leverage a UDP interface that listened to all events being sent.

While one result was a smaller impact on an application’s performance, we did face an issue as UDP traffic was not allowed from all networks, mostly from our users’ – causing us in some cases to receive no data at all. As a workaround, we supported logging events using HTTP requests. All events coming from the user’s side would be sent via HTTP, whereas all events being recorded from our components would be via UDP.

Decision 2: Tech Stack (Language, Framework & Storage)

We are a Ruby shop. However, we were uncertain if Ruby would be a better choice for our particular problem. Our service would have to handle a lot of incoming requests, as well as process a lot of writes. With the Global Interpreter lock, achieving multithreading or concurrency would be difficult in Ruby (please don’t take offense – we love Ruby!). So we needed a solution that would help us achieve this kind of concurrency.

We were also keen to evaluate a new language in our tech stack, and this project seemed perfect for experimenting with new things. That’s when we decided to give Golang a shot since it offered inbuilt support for concurrency and lightweight threads and go-routines. Each logged data point resembles a key-value pair where ‘key’ is the event and ‘value’ serves as its associated value.

But having a simple key and value is not enough to retrieve a session related data – there is more metadata to it. To address this, we decided any event needing to be logged would have a session ID along with its key and value. We also added extra fields like timestamp, user ID and the component logging the data, so that it became more easy to fetch and analyze data.

Now that we decided on our payload structure, we had to choose our datastore. We considered Elastic Search, but we also wanted to support update requests for keys. This would trigger the entire document to be re-indexed, which might affect the performance of our writes. MongoDB made more sense as a datastore since it would be easier to query all events based on any of the data fields that would be added. This was easy!

Decision 3: DB Size Is Huge And Query And Archiving Sucks!

In order to cut maintenance, our service would have to handle as many events as possible. Given the rate that BrowserStack releases features and products, we were certain the number of our events would increase at higher rates over time, meaning our service would have to continue to perform well. As space increases, reads and writes take more time – which could be a huge hit on the service’s performance.

The first solution we explored was moving logs from a certain period away from the database (in our case, we decided on 15 days). To do this, we created a different database for each day, allowing us to find logs older than a particular period without having to scan all written documents. Now we continually remove databases older than 15 days from Mongo, while of course keeping backups just in case.

The only leftover piece was a developer interface to query session-related data. Honestly, this was the easiest problem to solve. We provide an HTTP interface, where people can query for session related events in the corresponding database in the MongoDB, for any data having a particular session ID.

Architecture

Let’s talk about the internal components of the service, considering the following points:

  1. As previously discussed, we needed two interfaces – one listening over UDP and another listening over HTTP. So we built two servers, again one for each interface, to listen for events. As soon as an event arrives, we parse it to check whether it has the required fields – these are session ID, key, and value. If it does not, the data is dropped. Otherwise, the data is passed over a Go channel to another goroutine, whose sole responsibility is to write to the MongoDB.
  2. A possible concern here is writing to the MongoDB. If writes to the MongoDB are slower than the rate data is received, this creates a bottleneck. This, in turn, starves other incoming events and means dropped data. The server, therefore, should be fast in processing incoming logs and be ready to process ones upcoming. To address the issue, we split the server into two parts: the first receives all events and queues them up for the second, which processes and writes them into the MongoDB.
  3. For queuing we chose Redis. By dividing the entire component into these two pieces we reduced the server’s workload, giving it room to handle more logs.
  4. We wrote a small service using Sinatra server to handle all the work of querying MongoDB with given parameters. It returns an HTML/JSON response to developers when they need information on a particular session.

All these processes happily run on a single m3.large instance.


CLS v1


CLS v1: A representation of the system’s first architecture. All the components are running on one single machine.

Feature Requests

As our CLS tool saw more use over time, it needed more features. Below, we discuss these and how they were added.

Missing Metadata

Gradually as the number of components in BrowserStack increases, we’ve demanded more from CLS. For example, we needed the ability to log events from components lacking a session ID. Otherwise obtaining one would burden our infrastructure, in the form of affecting application performance and incurring traffic on our main servers.

We addressed this by enabling event logging using other keys, such as terminal and user IDs. Now whenever a session is created or updated, CLS is informed with the session ID, as well as the respective user and terminal IDs. It stores a map that can be retrieved by the process of writing to MongoDB. Whenever an event that contains either the user or terminal ID is retrieved, the session ID is added.

Handle Spamming (Code Issues In Other Components)

CLS also faced the usual difficulties with handling spam events. We often found deploys in components that generated a huge volume of requests sent to CLS. Other logs would suffer in the process, as the server became too busy to process these and important logs were dropped.

For the most part, most of the data being logged were via HTTP requests. To control them we enable rate limiting on nginx (using the limit_req_zone module), which blocks requests from any IP we found hitting requests more than a certain number in a small amount of time. Of course, we do leverage health reports on all blocked IPs and inform the responsible teams.

Scale v2

As our sessions per day increased, data being logged to CLS was also increasing. This affected the queries our developers were running daily, and soon the bottleneck we had was with the machine itself. Our setup consisted of two core machines running all of the above components, along with a bunch of scripts to query Mongo and keep track of key metrics for each product. Over time, data on the machine had increased heavily and scripts began to take a lot of CPU time. Even after trying to optimizing Mongo queries, we always came back to the same issues.

To solve this, we added another machine for running health report scripts and the interface to query these sessions. The process involved booting a new machine and setting up a slave of the Mongo running on the main machine. This has helped reduce the CPU spikes we saw every day caused by these scripts.


CLS v2


CLS v2: A representation of the current system’s architecture. Logs are written to the master machine and they are synced on the slave machine. Developer’s queries run on the slave machine.

Conclusion

Building a service for a task as simple as data logging can get complicated, as the amount of data increases. This article discusses the solutions we explored, along with challenges faced while solving this problem. We experimented with Golang to see how well it would fit with our ecosystem, and so far we have been satisfied. Our choice to create an internal service rather than paying for an external one has been wonderfully cost-efficient. We also didn’t have to scale our setup to another machine until much later – when the volume of our sessions increased. Of course, our choices in developing CLS were completely based on our requirements and priorities.

Today CLS handles up to 15 million events every day, constituting up to 70 GB of data. This data is being used to help us solve any issues our customers face during any session. We also use this data for other purposes. Given the insights each session’s data provides on different products and internal components, we’ve begun leveraging this data to keep track of each product. This is achieved by extracting the key metrics for all the important components.

All in all, we’ve seen great success in building our own CLS tool. If it makes sense for you, I recommend you consider doing the same!

Smashing Editorial
(rb, ra, il)


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Building A Central Logging Service In-House

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How Do You Know Your Website Is A Success?




How Do You Know Your Website Is A Success?

Nick Babich



(This article is kindly sponsored by Adobe.) We live in a world where just about every business has an online presence. Let’s say you want to reach out to a business — what would be the first thing you would do? Well, you would probably look up their website to search for answers to your questions or simply any contact details you can find. With no doubt, the first impression of any website is now more important than ever.

There are more than 1.8 billion websites on the Internet right now, and the number is growing. The increase of the competition brings a great interest in examining the factors of success of a website. While no one will argue that it’s essential to have a successful website, it’s still not easy to understand what exactly success means and how to actually measure it.

Define What Site Success Means To You

Set A Global Goal

Finding the answers to questions such as “What are our goals?” and “What do we want to achieve with this website?” should be the first thing to do when starting a new project. Skipping a stage of defining global goals and moving directly to the design stage is a pretty common mistake among many product teams. Without knowing exactly what you want to achieve, your chances of making a positive impact with your website will be poor.

Every website needs a well-defined product strategy. A strategy sets the tone for all of the activities, and it gives a context that helps in making design decisions. When you have a solid understanding of what you expect to get out of your site, it helps you to work towards that goal.

your product strategy
Product strategy is a combination of achievable goals and visions that work together to align the team around desirable outcomes for both the business and your users. (Image credit: Melissa Perri) (Large preview)

Here are a few tips that help you set a goal:

  • Tie the purpose to business goals.
    The website’s purpose should serve to support the company’s mission and make the business more effective in achieving that mission.
  • Make it specific.
    Instead of saying something like “I want to have a strong online presence,” consider this instead: “Our website should be a place where users submit requests for our services. Our goal is to have 50% of our orders submitted online, not over the phone.”
  • Conduct competitor research.
    List sites of your competitors which you find successful, and try to pinpoint why they are successful.

Strive To Create User-Focused Experience

Because visitors ultimately determine the success of a website, they should be in the spotlight during site’s development. As Dieter Rams says:

“You cannot understand good design if you do not understand people; design is made for people.”

Thus, start with gathering this understanding:

  • Portrait your ideal users.
    Try to understand what content they might need/want, their browsing habits (how they prefer to interact with a website) and the level of their technical competence. This knowledge will help you appeal to them better.
  • Think about the goal of your visitors.
    Put yourself in the shoes of your visitor. What do you want them to get done? Place an order? Reach you for a quote? Become a member? Drive the design from the user’s goals and tasks.* *Ideally, each page you design should have a goal for your users.
  • Create user journey map.
    If you have an existing site, you can figure out typical ways people use it by creating user journey maps.

User journey map


User journey map. (Image credit: Temkin Group)

8 Essential Characteristics Of Website Design That Influence Its Success

In this section, we aren’t going to discuss design implementation details (e.g. where a logo should be placed). We’ll be focusing on the main principles and approaches for effective web design. These principles will be reviewed from the angle of the first impression. It’s essential to focus on great user experience during the first-time visit. Generally, the better the first impression, the better the chance that users will stay for longer. But if the first impression is negative, it might make users want to avoid interacting with your product for years.

And how do we leave a good first impression? Good design. First impressions are 94% design related. While it’s impossible to define one-fits-all design decisions that will guarantee a successful site, it is still possible to focus on factors that are able to create a great first impression: the quality of content, usability, and visual aesthetics.

1. High-Quality Content

The copy used on your website is just as important as the website’s design; it’s the reason why people visit your website. More than 95 percent of information on the web is in the form of written language. Even if your site is beautifully designed, it’s no more than an empty frame without good content. A good website has both great design and great content.

“Content precedes design. Design in the absence of content is not design, it’s decoration.”

Jeffrey Zeldman

Match Users’ Expectations

Provide information your users expect to see. For example, if you design a website for a chain of restaurants, most visitors will expect to find the restaurants’ menus as well as maps that show where each restaurant is located.

Content That Builds Trust

Trust is what creates a persuasive power; trust makes the user believe in your products or services. That’s why it so important to build a sense of trust on your website. For example, if you design a website that will offer services, you should include content that will bolster a visitor’s confidence in those offerings. A simple way to accomplish this is to provide social proofs — put some testimonials on your site.

One great example is Basecamp. The company lists feedback from its clients together with a data statistic that reinforces the power of the social proof.


Basecamp pairs testimonials with research findings to create an ultimate persuasive effect.


Basecamp pairs testimonials with research findings to create an ultimate persuasive effect.

Focus On Microcopy

Microcopy is the tiny words we use in user interfaces. These might be field or button labels, or description for forms and other UI objects. Right microcopy can influence business profits. But in order to write good microcopy, it’s essential to understand user’s intentions and emotions.

During the Google I/O 2017, Maggie Stanphill explained the possible business value of writing good microcopy. After the Google team changed ‘Book a room’ to ‘Check availability’ in the Hotel search on Google, the engagement rate increased by 17%. This happened because the first version of microcopy (‘Book a room’) was too committal for that stage of the user journey. Users didn’t want to book a room; they wanted to explore all available options (date range as well as prices).


Good microcopy is human-oriented. In this example, ‘Check availability’ meets the user where they are in their mindset.


Good microcopy is human-oriented. In this example, ‘Check availability’ meets the user where they are in their mindset.

Text Is Optimized For Scanning

It’s necessary to adjust content to users’ browsing habits. It’s a well-known fact that users don’t read online, they scan. When a new visitor approaches a web page, the first thing s/he does is tries to do is to scan the page and divide the content into digestible pieces of information. By scanning through key parts of the page, they are trying to determine if the content is relevant to their needs.

Here are a few tips on how to format your content to make it easy to scan:

  • Avoid long blocks of text without images.
    With a huge probability, such content will be skipped. Use headings, paragraphs, or bullet points to break up a text.
  • Optimize layouts for natural scanning patterns.
    Eye tracking studies have identified that people scan pages in an “F” pattern. We read the first few lines, but then they start skipping down the page, caching only parts of the message. For this reason, it’s important to keep your text frontloaded — put the most important concepts first, so our eyes catch those important words as we track down.

Users don’t read, they scan. This heatmap shows where people’s focal points land. Effectively designed websites work with a reader’s natural behavior.


Users don’t read, they scan. This heatmap shows where people’s focal points land. Effectively designed websites work with a reader’s natural behavior. (Image credit: Useit)

Quick design tip: You can measure your readability score using a tool called Webpagefx.

Avoid Distraction

The human eye can instantly recognize moving objects. Moving objects such as animated banners or video advertising can capture users’ attention. An abundance of such content can lead to annoying and distracting experience. Thus, put an emphasis on a site with minimal distractions.


Heatmaps from eye-tracking studies: The areas where users looked the most are colored red; the yellow areas indicate fewer views. Green boxes are used to highlight the advertisements.


Heatmaps from eye-tracking studies: The areas where users looked the most are colored red; the yellow areas indicate fewer views. Green boxes are used to highlight the advertisements. (Image credit: NNGroup)

Contact Information

Make it easy for people to reach you. This requirement sounds pretty obvious; still, it’s quite a typical situation for first-time visitors to have to hunt for contact information. Don’t let that happen. Make a phone number, email, address and a contact form easily accessible.

Quick design tip: When designing your site, don’t make email or phone number a part of an image. Phone number/email should be in plain text so that users can copy this information.

Relevant Images And Videos In High Quality

Studies have proven that people are majorly visual learners. Most people are able to understand and grasp concepts far better when they are delivered in visual way.

Remember the old saying, “A picture is worth a thousand words”? It’s relevant to web design. A simple way to increase visual appeal is to provide high-quality imagery or video content.

One great example is Tesla which doesn’t tell the benefits of its car but rather shows a quick video that makes it clear what it feels like to drive a Tesla:


Tesla uses a principle ‘show, don't tell’ when demonstrating the benefits of using cars.


Tesla uses a principle ‘show, don’t tell’ when demonstrating the benefits of using cars.

2. Simple Interactions

According to Hubspot survey, 76% of respondents mentioned ease of use as the most important characteristic of a website. That’s why the “Keep It Simple” principle (KIS) should play a primary role in the process of web design.

Cut Out The Noise

Cluttering a user interface overloads your user with too much information — every added button, image, and line of text makes the screen more complicated. Cutting out the clutter on a website will make the primary message more easily understood by visitors. Include only the elements that are most important for communication, and use enough whitespace. It will help to reduce the cognitive load for the visitors and will make it easier to perceive the information presented on the screen.

Quick design tip: Put more visual weight on important elements. Make important elements such as call-to-action buttons or login forms focal points so visitors see them right away. You can emphasize elements using different sizes or colors.


Lyft makes the most important information on a page (the call-to-action button) stand out.


Lyft makes the most important information on a page (the call-to-action button) stand out.

Strong Visual Hierarchy

The better visual hierarchy your create, the easier your content will be perceived by users (Simon’s law). A grid layout allows you to organize information in a way that makes it easier for visitors to read and comprehend information presented on the page. Using grids makes it much easier to create a layout that feels balanced.


Use a grid layout when designing web experiences. Using grids in Adobe XD.


Use a grid layout when designing web experiences. Using grids in Adobe XD.

Good Navigation

Good navigation is one of the most important aspects of website usability. Even the most beautifully designed website will be useless if users aren’t able to find their way around.

When developing navigation for your website, think about what pages are most likely to be important to visitors, and how they will move from one page to another. Follow users’ expectations — create a predictable navigation structure and place it where users expect to see it.

Quick design tip: Reduce the total number of actions required for users to reach the destination. Try to follow the Three-click rule which means creating a structure that will enable users to find the information they are looking for within three clicks.

Recognizable Design Patterns

Design patterns are designer’s best friends. When designing your site, it’s worth remembering that users spend most of their time on other sites. Every time the user has to learn how something new works, it creates friction. By using recognizable conventions, you can reduce the learning curve. Recognizable UI patterns eventually help users to parse complicated tasks easily. Thus, when you follow users’ expectations and create a familiar experience (e.g. place UI elements in places where users expect to find them), site visitors can use their previous knowledge and act through intuition. This helps reduce the learning curve and the need to figure out how things work.

3. Fast Loading Time

As technology enables faster experiences, users’ willingness to wait has decreased. Slow loading time is one of the main reasons visitors leave websites. A typical user will only wait for a few seconds for your page to load. If nothing happens during this time, they will consider the site to be too slow, and will most likely navigate away to a competitor’s site.

Slow loading not only creates a lousy impression on users, but it also affects site’s search engine ranking, as slow-loading pages are reduced in rank in Google’s Search engine.

Test Your Website

There are tools available that allow you to test website performance. One of them is Google’s Test My Site which gives you an actionable report on how to speed up and improve your site. WebPage Test is another helpful tool which allows you to run a free website speed test from multiple locations around the globe, using real browsers (Internet Explorer and Chrome) at real consumer connection speeds.


The slower your website is, the higher your bounce rate will be.


The slower your website is, the higher your bounce rate will be. (Image credit: Luke W.)

Find What Is Causing The Slow Loading Time, And Fix The Problem

If slow loading is a typical situation for your website, try to find out what causes the problem and solve it. Typically, page load times are affected by:

  • Visual elements (images and animations).
    HD images and smooth animation can only create good UX when they don’t affect loading time. Consider reading the article Image Optimization for tips on image optimization.
  • Custom fonts.
    Like any other asset, it takes some time to download a custom font (and it takes more time if the font is located on a 3rd party service).
  • Business logic.
    Whether or not a solution you’ve developed is optimized for fast loading time. There are a lot of things developers can do to minimize the loading time. For example, it’s possible to use file compression and decompression to improve the performance of а website.
  • Technical infrastructure.
    An infrastructure is a place where you host your websites. It includes both hardware and software components as well as internet bandwidth.

Create A Perception Of Speed

If you can’t improve the actual performance of your website, you can try to create a perception of speed — how fast something feels is often more important than how fast it actually is. Employing a technique of skeleton screens can help you with that. A skeleton layout is a version of your page that displays while content is being loaded. Skeletons give the impression of speed — that something is happening more quickly than it really is and improve perceived load time.

This real estate website reuses some of the data from search results page (the image of the building and basic description) while the detailed information is loading. This creates a sense of immediate response even when some time required to load the data.
This real estate website reuses some of the data from search results page (the image of the building and basic description) while the detailed information is loading. This creates a sense of immediate response even when some time required to load the data. (Image credit: Owen Campbell-Moore) (Large preview)

Check out this Codepen example of skeleton effect in pure CSS. It uses a pulsation effect to give users a feeling that website is alive and content is loading:

See the Pen Skeleton Screen with CSS by Razvan Caliman (@oslego) on CodePen.

4. Feeling A Sense Of Control

A sense of control remains one of the basic usability heuristics for user interface design. Effective interfaces instill a sense of control in their users.

Good Error Handling

To err is human. Errors occur when people engage with user interfaces. Sometimes, they happen because users make mistakes. Sometimes, they happen because a website fails. Whatever the cause, these errors and how they are handled, have a significant impact on the user experience. Bad error handling paired with useless error messages can fill users with frustration and can lead them to abandon your website. When errors occur, it’s essential to create effective error messages.


Make your website sound human even. Each error message your website display should be clear, clean, and useful.


Make your website sound human even. Each error message your website display should be clear, clean, and useful.

Designers can use a tactic called design for failure in which you try to anticipate the places users might face problems and plan for such cases. Whereas implementing the ideal user journey is the end goal, the complexities of an individual user’s experience are rarely so cut and dried. Recognizing potential pain points and preparing for it using tools like failure mapping for error recovery helps to ensure that you’re putting forth the best experience you can for the majority of your users.

No Aggressive Pushers

We all know that feeling. You visit a new website, the content on the page seems to be interesting. You begin to read it and just when you are halfway through the text, you are suddenly interrupted by a huge overlay asking you to either subscribe to a newsletter or take advantage of an offer. In most cases, your immediate reaction will be either to close the overlay or to close the entire page, the overlay along with it.

Aggressive pushers such as pop-ups with promotional content will put most people on the defensive. According to the NN Group, pop-ups are the most hated web experience ever.

Aggressive pushers create bad user experience.
Aggressive pushers create bad user experience. (Image credit: Vitaly Dulenko) (Large preview)

Don’t Autoplay Video With Sound

When users arrive on a page, they don’t expect that it will play any sound. Most users don’t use headphones and will be stressed because they’ll need to figure out how to turn the sound off. In most cases, users will leave the website as soon as it plays. Thus, if you use autoplay video content on your site, set audio to off by default, with the option to turn it on.

5. Good Visual Appearance

Does an attractive design lead to more conversion? While there’s no direct connection between attractive design and conversion, visual appearance might increase chances for conversion. As Steven Bradley says:

“Human beings have an attractiveness bias; we perceive beautiful things as being better, regardless of whether they actually are better. All else being equal, we prefer beautiful things, and we believe beautiful things function better. As in nature, function can follow form.”

Just like with any other area of design, web design is constantly changing. Design trends come and go, and its necessary to be sure that your design doesn’t look dated. Familiarize yourself with latest trends and try to keep your design up to date by tuning your design.

Awwwards and Behance are great places which will help you be familiar with the latest trends.

Avoid Generic Stock Photos

Many corporate websites are notorious for using generic stock photos to build a sense of trust. Such photos rarely hold useful information. Usability tests show that generic photos and other decorative graphic elements don’t add any value to the design and more often impair rather than improve the user experience. Eye-tracking studies show that users usually overlook stock images.


An example of a stock photo


An example of a stock photo

6. Design Is Accessible To All Groups Of Users

You can’t call your design successful if your audience has trouble using it. There’s a direct connection between bad UX and inaccessibility. One typical example of design decisions that often create terrible UX for the sake of beauty is using light grey text on light backgrounds. The example below was taken from one of the most popular powerful platforms for creating websites. Even a person with normal vision will struggle to read a text on this page, and there’s a huge possibility that a visually impaired person wouldn’t be able to read it at all.


Insufficient color contrast paired with small font size create readability issues.


Insufficient color contrast paired with small font size create readability issues.

The website you design should be accessible to all groups of users including blind, disabled or the elderly. Be sure to check WCAG documents and WUHCAG’s checklist.

7. Memorable Design

Taking into account the fact that almost all business have an online presence today — no matter what product or service you offer online — there are many other websites offering exactly what you do (perhaps even with the same benefits). It’s essential to set your website apart from the competition by crafting really memorable design.

Barbara Fredrickson and Daniel Kahneman proposed a psychological heuristic called the “peak-end rule” which dictates the way our brain works with information. The peak-end rule states that people judge an experience based mainly on how they felt at its peak (i.e., its most intense point) and at its end, rather than based on the total sum or average of every moment of the experience. The effect occurs regardless of whether the experience is pleasant or unpleasant. In other words, when we remember experiences, we tend to recall not entire experience but only key events that happened. That’s why it’s essential to create a spark that will stay in a user’s memory for a long time.

Color

Color hugely influences on what people remember, and how vividly they remember it. Selective use of color can trigger the memory and be that one added element that ensures your brand stays memorable and recognizable.

For example, when we think about Spotify, we usually think about vibrant colors. The service uses color as a brand and experience differentiator:


Spotify plays with colors to create a memorable experience.


Spotify plays with colors to create a memorable experience.

Illustrations

Illustrations are a versatile tool useful in creating a unique design. From small icons to large hand-drawn hero sketches, illustrations bring a sense of fine craftsmanship in digital experience.

A straightforward way of using illustrations in web design is to tailor them to your messaging.


Illustrations can be a great supplement of the text copy.


Illustrations can be a great supplement of the text copy. (Image credit: Evernote)

Using brand mascots in web design is another great example when illustrations can create a memorable experience. Mascots become the elements of identity and inter-connector between the user and the product.


By pairing illustrations with jokes, Smashing Magazine has developed a distinct design style that makes them memorable for anyone who aware of the brand.


By pairing illustrations with jokes, Smashing Magazine has developed a distinct design style that makes them memorable for anyone who aware of the brand.

Brand Consistency

Consistency is arguably the key rule to a successful brand. Inconsistency brings a huge problem — users won’t picture a specific thing when they think about a brand, and, as a result, it can quickly become forgettable. That’s why the website’s design should be consistent with your brand. Make sure that basic brand attributes such as brand colors, fonts, logos, and slogans are used consistently on the website.

Quick design tip: An excellent way to boost your ability to maintain a consistent brand design is through a style guide. Prepare it once and use it for each product you design.


McDonald's website design is consistent with its brand.


McDonald’s website design is consistent with its brand.

Humor

Make your experiences fun, so people remember them. One good example is Mailchimp, a service used to schedule and deploy email campaigns. The company fulfills a fairly technical niche, but by using humor it transforms this dry task into an inviting experience. Mailchimp uses a mascot called Freddie von Chimpenheimer. Freddie often cracks jokes, and humor is an effective way to connect with people. This positive attitude will often lead to people sharing and even advocating for the product with their friends.


Freddie, the cartoon mascot of MailChimp, is a great emotional carrier for humor.


Freddie, the cartoon mascot of MailChimp, is a great emotional carrier for humor.

Mailchimp adds small and delightful surprises throughout the user journey and makes sending emails a lot more fun.
Mailchimp adds small and delightful surprises throughout the user journey and makes sending emails a lot more fun. (Large preview)

8. Design Is Optimized For Mobile

Just a decade ago, designing for the web meant designing for a desktop, now it means designing for mobile and desktop. Mobile phones and tablets are driving an increasing amount of web traffic, and the numbers are only going to grow. In 2018, more than 50 percent of all website traffic worldwide was generated through mobile phones.

Prioritize Content And Features

Optimizing web design for mobile is a lot more than just making your design responsive. It’s about content and feature prioritization. Taking medium limitations into account, the goal is to show only what your users need in this medium.

Focus on refining the experience around your core objectives. Know what the core purpose of your app is — analyze which features of your app are used the most and put the most effort into making that experience intuitive.

Measure Success

After we’ve defined what makes a site successful, it’s time to understand how to measure the success. Measuring a site’s success requires an in-depth look at the analytics and data. As the first step in the process of measuring usage data, it’s essential to define right metrics. Metrics will make it clear whether your design decision is working or not. There are two groups of metrics — marketing metrics and UX metrics. Both groups of metrics are essential to a site’s success.

Marketing Metrics

Acquisition

Acquisition includes information about site’s visitors — how many people visit your site and how do they find it. Acquisition metrics include:

  • Number of gross visits.
    This is the most basic acquisition metric that you can track. It gives you a good baseline on how your site is doing, but it won’t tell you much without other metrics. For example, an increasing number of visitors does not necessarily mean success, because those visitors might not be relevant to your business goals.
  • Channels.
    As well as knowing your top-level traffic numbers (number of gross visits), you should also know where your traffic is coming from. If you use Google Analytics, it organizes acquired website traffic into a few broad categories such as Direct, Organic Search, Referral, Social. These groupings allow you to immediately segment your traffic source and identify specific patterns of behavior for each source.
  • Points of entrance.
    An entrance shows you what page people started their session on. You might think this would be the home page, when in fact that’s rarely the case, especially with referral and social traffic. If you go to the Behavior section of Google Analytics, you’ll be able to see your best-performing pages regarding traffic volume. Knowing what pages bring the most traffic is hugely important because it gives you reliable information on what content attracts people.

Engagement

Engagement measures the amount of time visitors stay on your website, as well as how many pages they visit. Engagement metrics help UX teams understand how much attention visitors give to a website.

Engagement metrics include:

  • Time spent on your site.
    Time visitors spend on site is often equated with engagement. Generally, the more time users spend on the site, the more valuable it’s for them. However, there might be an exception to this rule. For example, users might spend more time on a site because it’s hard to complete a specific task (e.g., find the information they need).
  • Total number of pages visited during user session.
    Generally, the more pages people visited, the better. However, it can also be an indicator of dissatisfaction – if people have to visit dozens of pages to find what they’re looking for, that often leads to unhappiness.
  • Bounce rate.
    The bounce rate (reported as a %) enables you to track how many people visit only one page before leaving your site. Naturally, you want this percentage to be as low as possible. There are some factors which could contribute to a high bounce rate. Generally, a high percentage could point to the lack of relevant content or usability issues. But of course, this rule has exceptions. For example, a visitor may have come to your site just to find contact information about your company. Once they had your phone number or address, there was no need to visit another page.

Quick tips:

  • Create a list of top 10 pages visitors are most engaged with. The pages that users are spending most time may help you determine if your goals are in-line with the goals of users.
  • Track exit pages. It’s essential not only to track how a user gets to your site but also how they leave it. This metric is different than a bounce rate in that it tracks visitors who visited multiple pages (bounce rate is a single page metric). If a particular page has a high exit rate, it might be an indication of a problem.

Retention

There are two types of website visitors: first-time visitors and returning visitors. Retention is the percentage of return visitors — people who continue visiting your website within a specific time frame. When a team measures retention, it becomes much easier to distinguish new users from returning users, and, as a result, see how quickly user base is growing or stabilizing.

Retention can be distilled from the percentage of new sessions. By comparing the percentage of new sessions vs. returning visitors, you can determine if your website is attracting new visitors and whether it offers enough value so people return to it.

Conversion

The majority of websites have a goal of getting visitors to convert (take action), whether it is to purchase an item or sign up for a newsletter. That’s why conversion is the metric that everyone cares about the most. Aim to maximize the number of people who convert (e.g., buy something after they come to your site). Obviously, the higher the conversion rate, the better your website is doing.

A conversion rate can tell you a lot about the quality of your traffic. For example, having a low conversion rate while having a lot of unique visits can be an indication that you are attracting the wrong traffic.

Here are a few tips for measuring conversion:

  • It’s always better to select easy-to-measure activities. For example, it might be something as simple as contact form submissions. Contact form submissions can be a great indicator of your site’s success — if users prompt an inquiry this is a great indication that your site has engaged them.
  • For larger sites, it’s good to have many different conversion goals on one site. For example, an eCommerce store might have three conversion goals — a product purchase, a subscriber to an email list, a social share.

Pirate Metrics (AARRR Framework)

As you can see, there are a lot of metrics that can be used. But how do you figure out which metrics to implement and track?

In the attempt to simplify the task of selecting right metrics, Dave McClure created a framework called AARRR. This framework uses a customer lifecycle as a foundation (the idea that visitors go from being a first-time visitor to a returning visitor), and tracks users through a conversion funnel over time. The life cycle consists of 5 steps:

  1. Acquisition
    Users come to the site from various channels.
  2. Activation
    Users enjoy their first visit (happy user experience).
  3. Retention
    Users come back and visit the site multiple times
  4. Referral
    Users like the product enough to refer it to others.
  5. Revenue
    Users conduct some type of monetization behavior.

The AARRR framework: Acquisition, Activation, Retention, Referral, Revenue.

Pirate metrics can help you determine where you should focus on optimizing your marketing funnel.

User Experience Metrics

While marketing metrics define the success of a product based on the conversion, user experience metrics focus on the quality of interaction with a product. Focusing on business goals does not necessarily lead to a better user experience. UX metrics can complement marketing metrics by concentrating on the critical aspects of user experience.

The Quality Of User Experience (HEART Framework)

When it comes to measuring user experience, it’s always hard to define specific metrics. Of course, there are high-level UX metrics that correlate with the success of user experiences such as usability, engagement, and conversion. But it might be hard to define metrics that will be relevant to a particular product. In the attempt to simplify this task, the Google team created a framework called HEART. This framework is intended to help designers focus on the product they create, and the user experience it provides. HEART uses some metrics that we already mentioned in the marketing section, but from a different angle.

  • Happiness
    Measures of user attitudes: satisfaction, perceived ease of use, net-promoter score. This metric can be collected via survey.
  • Engagement
    Level of user involvement. Engagement is typically measured as depth of interaction over some time period. For example, the number of visits per user per month.
  • Adoption
    Gaining new users of a product or feature. For example, the number of users who tried new product features in the last week.
  • Retention
    The rate at which existing users are returning. For example, for a web service this might be the number of active users remaining present over time. For e-commerce website, this might be the number of repeat purchases.
  • Task Success
    This category is most applicable to areas of your product that are task-focused. It includes behavior metrics such as efficiency (e.g. time to complete a task), effectiveness (e.g. percent of tasks completed), and error rate. For example, for e-commerce website this might be the number of search result success.

The HEART framework is very flexible — it can be applied to a specific feature or a whole product. It’s important to mention that you don’t need to collect metrics in all of HEART categories — you should choose only the most important for your particular project. It’s possible to choose metrics by following a process of Goals-Signals-Metrics.

The Goals-Signals-Metrics Process

The Goals-Signals-Metrics process helps you to identify meaningful metrics you’ll actually use.


Google HEART framework and Goals-Signals-Metrics process


Google HEART framework and Goals-Signals-Metrics process

The process of selecting metrics you can implement and track starts with goals. To define a goal, you need to focus on knowing what determines success. This is where the HEART categories will be particularly useful. For example, if you create a news site you might set a goal in the engagement category; the aim would be to have users enjoy the articles they read, and to keep them browsing to discover more articles from different categories.

Here are two tips that will help you define better goal:

  • *Don’t define your goals in terms of your existing metrics. *It’s a common pitfall when a team defines goals based on information it has. As a result, a goal might sound as something like ‘We need to increase traffic to our site.’ Yes, everyone wants to have more visitors, but does more visitors will move you towards your goal? Not necessary.
  • Work with team and stakeholders to identify the goals. You may not realize that different members of your team have different ideas about the goals of your project. Identifying goals early on in design process provides an opportunity to build consensus about where you are headed. Make sure that everyone on the team understands the proposed solution in sufficient detail.

After identifying your goals, you need to think about what user actions will result in progress toward these goals. These actions are your signals. There are usually a large number of potentially useful signals for a particular goal. Once you have identified some potential signals, you may need to do research or analysis to choose the ones that are most relevant. If we circle back to our example with a news site, an engagement signal for it might be the number of articles users read on the site.

Here are a few tips:

  • Consider how easy or difficult is to track each signal. It’s preferable to focus on signals that can be monitored automatically (e.g. your product can log the relevant information so you can use it for further analysis).
  • Try to choose signals that are sensitive to changes in your design. This way you will be able to analyze the data you have to understand whether the design changes benefit your users or not.
  • Don’t ignore negative signals. Identifying signals for possible missteps (e.g. number of errors during particular interaction) can help you reveal pain points in your product.

Once you’ve chosen signals, you can refine them into metrics you’ll track over time. In our news site engagement example, we might implement “how long users spend reading news” as “the average number of minutes spent reading news per user per day.”

  • Prioritize your metrics.
    Focus on tracking the metrics related to your top goals.
  • Don’t add metrics for sake of adding metrics.
    Avoid the temptation to add “interesting stats” to the list of metrics. Always ask yourself whether you will actually use these numbers to help you make a decision.
  • The metrics you track should be tied back to design decisions.
    When you see a change, you should be absolutely clear on what has caused that change.

What Can Influence Success

Follow TETO Principle

How to make sure that website meets user’s expectations? You can’t just assume that it does — you need to test your design to see how users engage with it. Testing can reveal much more than how usable a site is — it can also demonstrate the users’ emotional response to the design. That’s why TETO-principle (test early, test often) should be applied to every web design project.

  • Don’t expect to build a perfect product right from the first attempt.
    Product design is an ongoing journey for both you and your users. That means that you design something, test it, rework it and then test it again.
  • Use comparative testing to find the best solution for your users.
    If you have multiple solutions to a particular problem and not sure what solution works best for your product, you can use A/B testing to validate it. Compare what users do in one scenario vs. another, and see which design is the most effective.
  • Collect qualitative feedback.
    All measurable data that we’ve talked about in previous sections can tell you a lot of answers on “*how many*” questions. But this data won’t tell you why people interact in a way they do. Facing readability issues, hesitation when filling out a payment form, using search because site’s navigation is really hard to deal with — all of these types of details are critical to understanding the user experience. They might be a reason why people abandon a process and leave the site. It’s possible to find answers to why questions by observing and interviewing your users.

User interview illustration


User interview (Illustration by Igor Kopelnitsky)

Data-Informed, Not Data-Driven Design

When product teams collect data, they usually follow either data-driven or data-informed design process. The latter is more preferable. Design shouldn’t be driven by data, it should be informed by data.

Don’t Be Obsessed Over Numbers

A lot of metrics get reported simply because they are flowing in from analytics tool. While it’s tempting to report a lot of different things and hope that this will make your report more valuable, in reality, this usually leads to more complex reports that are hard to read.

Don’t Fall Into The Trap Of Complete Redesign

All too often design teams try to introduce a complete rework for a solution which they believe will result in more successful web experience. Jared Spool calls major product redesign a Flip-the-Switch strategy — “the most ineffective way to get major changes into a design.” In the article, “ The Quiet Death of the Major Re-Launch,” he shares a story on the eBay redesign — and it’s a great reminder of why users don’t like dramatic changes. A complete redesign that brings new visual and interaction design might be too much change and have an adverse effect.

If you have an existing website, instead of investing in a large scale redesign focus on subtle evolution, make small and incremental changes that can (over time) improve conversions without visitors even noticing that changes have been made.

Conclusion

So, how do you know that your website is a success? As a product creator, you must first define what success means to you. For that, it’s always important to have a big picture in mind of what it is that you want to achieve.

The next step would be to focus on metrics. Metrics will show you how a site changes over time. They will help you fill in the blanks between what has happened and why.

This article is part of the UX design series sponsored by Adobe. Adobe XD tool is made for a fast and fluid UX design process, as it lets you go from idea to prototype faster. Design, prototype and share — all in one app. You can check out more inspiring projects created with Adobe XD on Behance, and also sign up for the Adobe experience design newsletter to stay updated and informed on the latest trends and insights for UX/UI design.

Smashing Editorial
(ra, il)


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How Do You Know Your Website Is A Success?

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How To Deliver A Successful UX Project In The Healthcare Sector




How To Deliver A Successful UX Project In The Healthcare Sector

Sven Jungmann & Karolin Neubauer



A mid-career UX researcher was hired to understand the everyday needs, perceptions, and concerns of patients in a hospital in Berlin, Germany. She used rigorous observation and interviewing methods just like she teaches them to design thinking students at a nearby university. She returned with a handful of actionable insights that our product team found useful, somewhat at least.

However, we were surprised that her recommendations gravitated towards convenience issues such as “Patients want to know the food menu” or “Users struggle to remember who their doctors are.” Entirely missing were reports of physical and psychological complaints. We would at least have expected sleeping problems: Given that 80% of working Germans don’t sleep well and nearly 10% even appear to have severe sleeping disorders (link in German), why did no one mention it?

“We only see what we know.”

— Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)

If you are a UX researcher about to embark on a project with hospitalized patients and you want to avoid missing out on deep concerns and problems of users, then maybe this article can help you strengthen your awareness for particular challenges of clinical UX.

It is difficult to get in touch with real patients and get permission from clinical staff to access the right people. We are fortunate to have access to a network of more than 100 hospitals in Germany thanks to our sister Helios Kliniken GmbH, which is Europe’s largest private hospital provider. Our experience with clinical UX research taught us the importance of stressing that we cannot assume that patients bring up relevant concerns by themselves.

We describe three reasons we think are important to improve the quality and quantity of your findings. Generally speaking, this article emphasizes the need for UX practitioners to be mindful of their participants’ emotional and physical state. But we also discuss how we think UX researchers should prepare for and conduct a research project in the healthcare sector.

The Three B’s That Complicate UX Research In Hospitals

We’ve been thinking much about user research in hospital settings recently. Our new company, smart Helios, a digital health development firm, is a spin-off of Helios Kliniken, Europe’s largest private hospital chain. To inform our lean software development, we thoroughly embrace iterative empathetic observation and end-user interviews at each step of a development cycle (i.e., ideation, prototyping, and testing).

We learned that qualitative research in a hospital setting brings its challenges. We think it is worth considering them, especially those we discuss here, called the three B’s: Biases, Barriers, and Background.

Here’s an overview:

  1. Biases
    Psychological mechanisms can affect our patients’ thinking and hence diminish the results of our findings.
  2. Barriers to trust
    Patients rarely share intimate needs with a non-medical interviewer easily. This can create blind spots in our research.
  3. Background
    Internal and external factors such as wealth, socio-economic status, sanitation, education, and access to healthcare can influence our health as well as the care patients receive. The quality of care also depends on the hospital’s infrastructure and staff experience with a particular disease or procedure. These differences make it challenging to generalize findings.

We also discuss remedies that can help overcome these challenges and distill more valuable insights. They include:

  • Conducting a thorough and well-prepared interview.
  • Including healthcare providers in the process.
  • Drawing on quantitative data to guide some of the qualitative user research.

Biases: We Are Fantastic At Lying To Ourselves, Whether Or Not We’re Patients

Psychologists call them cognitive biases: they negatively affect how accurately we perceive and remember events or feelings, and we possess impressive amounts of them.

For example, people remember information better if it is more recent or salient. If you ask a patient about the initial appointment with her oncologist (this is rarely good news), don’t be surprised if she remembers only a quarter of it. Hospitalized patients are typically overwhelmed by the unfamiliar situation they’re in and often under stress and that influences their memory.

Hence it makes a difference when you ask them in their patient journey. Even in one day, patients face different problems that affect what’s top of mind at the moment you observe or interview them:

  • In the morning, when the painkillers have worn off during sleep, regaining control over physical pain is all that matters.
  • During the day, worries about upcoming procedures might dominate their thoughts or they could be focused on their hunger while they’re not allowed to eat or drink ahead of a diagnostic test.
  • In the evening, they might be afraid that they won’t be able to update their relatives appropriately.
  • At night, some struggle to sleep because of the hospital noise or their worries.

Takeaways:

  • Try interviewing users at different times of the day and different moments of their journey and take note of how findings vary.
  • Always get an orientation about where your users stand within their patient journey. Explore what happened in the previous hours or days and what diagnostics or treatments lie ahead of them.
  • Beware that our psyches possess a plethora of mechanisms to limit rationality and prevent past events from entering our conscious mind. You cannot control them all, but it improves your research if you notice them.

Barriers To Trust: Who Is Asking Matters, Too

It’s not just about how and when; it also matters who is asking. Even if a patient agrees to speak with us, what she shares will highly depend on how much she trusts us. One of us observed as a clinician how often his patients need to build up trust, sometimes over days until they ‘confess’ certain concerns. That’s especially true when problems have a psychological component (e.g., sleeping disorders) or are stigmatized (e.g., certain infectious diseases).

The more knowledgeable you are about health problems, the better you can steer interviews towards relevant issues. If you do this empathetically, your interviewees might find it easier to speak about them. Don’t get frustrated, however, if they don’t. Some people need a lot of trust, and there’s rarely a shortcut to earning it. In these cases, there’s something else you can do: include subjects who are not your target users but still have crucial insights in your interviews.

Take the nurse, for example. She might know from her previous night shift how many patients had trouble sleeping and who might agree to talk about it. The doctors will know which crucial questions they get asked frequently. And the housekeeping staff can share stories about the patients’ hygiene concerns. Listen closely to them: many of the staffs’ pain points likely hint to patients’ pain points, too. The more observers you allow to shed light on one subject, the better your chances to understand your patients’ experiences and the broader your perception of the system will be.

Takeaways:

  • Try to interview people involved in your users’ care.
  • Ask the clinical staff for guidance on which patients to ask about specific problems.
  • Even if patients are your primary users, make sure to ask health care providers, such as doctors, nurses, or therapists about common patient needs.
  • Schedule repeated interviews with patients if possible to build the trust necessary for sharing critical concerns.

The ‘living’ patient journey map.


A large, printed and ‘living’ patient journey helps to constantly challenge and refine assumptions. (Large preview)

Background: Mind The Worlds In And Around The Patients

Different patients have different needs. This is obvious, and part of the reason why UX researchers develop personas, conduct semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and observe subjects to explore the multiple realities of our participants. But there’s still a problem we can’t dismiss. Even within our hospitals inside Germany, people’s realities can differ greatly depending on their income, education, insurance, place of residence, etc.

What you discover in one hospital or region might not apply elsewhere. This can be a problem if you want to deploy your products at scale. If you have the opportunity, you should go the extra mile to conduct UX research in different hospitals to understand the needs and what drives adoption.

If some regions show poor sales, conduct field research in these regions to revisit your personas. In fact, don’t just challenge the personas, also explore the environment.

Here’s an example of why that matters: We developed a tool that relies on data from a hospital information system. This worked well in one clinic were staff was spread over different parts of the building, turning digital communication into an effective medium. In another hospital, however, the relevant people sat in the same room, making face-to-face communication significantly better than typing information into electronic records.

Takeaways:

  • Go beyond personas or archetypes and seek to understand the different realities between hospitals, wards, and regions.
  • Develop and constantly improve a rollout-playbook that lists local challenges and how you solved them to inform future expansions.

Sorry, Ignorance Is Not Bliss

Some UX researchers seem to believe that it is beneficial to enter an interview unprepared to avoid bias. Some shy away from acquiring relevant medical knowledge, thinking that (since they are not trained medical professionals) they won’t grasp the concepts anyway. Some feel that understanding the medical context of their interviewees’ situation will not add value to their research since they solely focus on the subjective experience of the disease.

But in evidence-based healthcare, conducting research on patients without previous peer-reviewed literature and guideline research is not only unprofessional but often even considered unethical. We should not fall prey to the illusion that ignorance frees us from bias.

The good news is that in healthcare, we are privileged to have a large body of well-conducted studies and systematic reviews available online, many of them free to access. PubMed is an excellent and open source, tutorials on how to use are abundantly available online (we think this is a good primer). Or if you have the budget, paid sites like UpToDate provide comprehensive disease reviews written both for professionals and for laypeople.

We know that UX researchers who are rightfully focused on ‘getting out of the building’ might not enjoy spending many hours on literature research but we are convinced that this will help you form better hypotheses and questions.

Moreover, if you start with clearly predefined research questions and seek answers in the scientific medical literature, you might save time and discover questions that you wouldn’t have thought of. For example, it is advised that individuals undergoing hip surgery should practice using crutches before the operation because it is already difficult enough even without the postoperative pain and swelling. This knowledge, obtained from literature research, could help move from more open questions, such as:

  • “How do patients prepare for a hip replacement surgery?” or
  • “What perceived needs to patients have ahead of hip surgery?”

To more concrete questions such as:

  • “What are the most important preparatory measures that many patients are currently unaware of?”

Takeaway:

  • Do a systematic literature review to inform your research.

Let The Data Guide You And You Guide The Data

To take this further, we’re also developing methods to use quantitative analytics and Deep Learning to guide our qualitative research. Our machine learning engineer just deployed AI to crawl the web for colon cancer blogs to identify hot topics that remained unmentioned in qualitative reviews. We defined “hot” as having many views, many comments, and many likes.

Or you can uncover semantic structures (see picture). These findings can then guide the UX researchers. Similarly, qualitative research can yield hypotheses that we can try to validate with passively collected data. For example, if you think that sleeping problems are common, you could (user consent provided) use your app to measure phone use at night as a proxy for sleeplessness.


Informing our researchers about hot topics in colon cancer using machine learning (topic modeling, credits Yuki Katoh and Ellen Hoeven)


Deploying topic modeling to find semantic structures in texts on colon cancer to inform our qualitative researchers. (Large preview)

Conclusion

Many of our suggestions are not new to well-trained UX researchers. We are aware of that. But in our experience, it is worth stressing the importance of mindfulness towards the three Bs: Biases, Barriers to trust, and Background. Here’s a summary of some of the recommendations to overcome the 3 Bs:

  • Prepare interviews with literature research on the topic (e.g., on Pubmed.gov).
  • Ask doctors which patients are suitable for interview.
  • Include those who care for your users, including nurses, therapists, and relatives.
  • Cooperate with the data scientists or web analysts in your team, if you have them.
  • Understand that it takes users time to build trust to tell you about some needs.
  • Explore how realities differ not only by personas, but also by regions and hospitals.
  • Stay aware that, no matter how much you try, the influence of the 3Bs can only be reduced, and not entirely removed.

We wish you well and thank you for making the world a healthier place.


The authors would like to thank their former colleague, Tim Leinert, for his thoughtful input to this piece.

Smashing Editorial
(cc, ra, yk, il)


See original article here: 

How To Deliver A Successful UX Project In The Healthcare Sector