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Managing SVG Interaction With The Pointer Events Property
Try clicking or tapping the SVG image below. If you put your pointer in the right place (the shaded path) then you should have Smashing Magazine’s homepage open in a new browser tab. If you tried to click on some white space, you might be really confused instead.
This is the dilemma I faced during a recent project that included links within SVG images. Sometimes when I clicked the image, the link worked. Other times it didn’t. Confusing, right?
I turned to the SVG specification to learn more about what might be happening and whether SVG offers a fix. The answer: pointer-events.
Not to be confused with DOM (Document Object Model) pointer events, pointer-events is both a CSS property and an SVG element attribute. With it, we can manage which parts of an SVG document or element can receive events from a pointing device such as a mouse, trackpad, or finger.
A note about terminology: “pointer events” is also the name of a device-agnostic, web platform feature for user input. However, in this article — and for the purposes of the pointer-events property — the phrase “pointer events” also includes mouse and touch events.
Outside Of The Box: SVG’s “Shape Model”
Using CSS with HTML imposes a box layout model on HTML. In the box layout model, every element generates a rectangle around its contents. That rectangle may be inline, inline-level, atomic inline-level, or block, but it’s still a rectangle with four right angles and four edges. When we add a link or an event listener to an element, the interactive area matches the dimensions of the rectangle.
Note: Adding a clip-path to an interactive element alters its interactive bounds. In other words, if you add a hexagonal clip-path path to an a element, only the points within the clipping path will be clickable. Similarly, adding a skew transformation will turn rectangles into rhomboids.
SVG does not have a box layout model. You see, when an SVG document is contained by an HTML document, within a CSS layout, the root SVG element adheres to the box layout model. Its child elements do not. As a result, most CSS layout-related properties don’t apply to SVG.
So instead, SVG has what I’ll call a ‘shape model’. When we add a link or an event listener to an SVG document or element, the interactive area will not necessarily be a rectangle. SVG elements do have a bounding box. The bounding box is defined as: the tightest fitting rectangle aligned with the axes of that element’s user coordinate system that entirely encloses it and its descendants. But initially, which parts of an SVG document are interactive depends on which parts are visible and/or painted.
Painted vs. Visible Elements
SVG elements can be “filled” but they can also be “stroked”. Fill refers to the interior of a shape. Stroke refers to its outline.
Together, “fill” and “stroke” are painting operations that render elements to the screen or page (also known as the canvas). When we talk about painted elements, we mean that the element has a fill and/or a stroke. Usually, this means the element is also visible.
However, an SVG element can be painted without being visible. This can happen if the visible attribute value or CSS property is hidden or when display is none. The element is there and occupies theoretical space. We just can’t see it (and assistive technology may not detect it).
Perhaps more confusingly, an element can also be visible — that is, have a computed visibility value of visible — without being painted. This happens when elements lack both a stroke and a fill.
Note: Color values with alpha transparency (e.g. rgba(0,0,0,0)) do not affect whether an element is painted or visible. In other words, if an element has an alpha transparent fill or stroke, it’s painted even if it can’t be seen.
Knowing when an element is painted, visible, or neither is crucial to understanding the impact of each pointer-events value.
All Or None Or Something In Between: The Values
pointer-events is both a CSS property and an SVG element attribute. Its initial value is auto, which means that only the painted and visible portions will receive pointer events. Most other values can be split into two groups:
Values that require an element to be visible; and
Values that do not.
painted, fill, stroke, and all fall into the latter category. Their visibility-dependent counterparts — visiblePainted, visibleFill, visibleStroke and visible — fall into the former.
The SVG 2.0 specification also defines a bounding-box value. When the value of pointer-events is bounding-box, the rectangular area around the element can also receive pointer events. As of this writing, only Chrome 65+ supports the bounding-box value.
none is also a valid value. It prevents the element and its children from receiving any pointer events. The pointer-events CSS property can be used with HTML elements too. But when used with HTML, only auto and none are valid values.
Since pointer-events values are better demonstrated than explained, let’s look at some demos.
Here we have a circle with a fill and a stroke applied. It’s both painted and visible. The entire circle can receive pointer events, but the area outside of the circle cannot.
Disable the fill, so that its value is none. Now if you try to hover, click, or tap the interior of the circle, nothing happens. But if you do the same for the stroke area, pointer events are still dispatched. Changing the fill value to none means that this area visible, but not painted.
Let’s make a small change to our markup. We’ll add pointer-events="visible" to our circle element, while keeping fill=none.
Now the unpainted area encircled by the stroke can receive pointer events.
Augmenting The Clickable Area Of An SVG Image
Let’s return to the image from the beginning of this article. Our “amethyst” is a path element, as opposed to a group of polygons each with a stroke and fill. That means we can’t just add pointer-events="all" and call it a day.
Instead, we need to augment the click area. Let’s use what we know about painted and visible elements. In the example below, I’ve added a rectangle to our image markup.
Even though this rectangle is unseen, it’s still technically visible (i.e. visibility: visible). Its lack of a fill, however, means that it is not painted. Our image looks the same. Indeed it still works the same — clicking white space still doesn’t trigger a navigation operation. We still need to add a pointer-events attribute to our a element. Using the visible or all values will work here.
Using bounding-box would eliminate the need for a phantom element. All points within the bounding box would receive pointer events, including the white space enclosed by the path. But again: pointer-events="bounding-box" isn’t widely supported. Until it is, we can use unpainted elements.
Using pointer-events When Mixing SVG And HTML
Another case where pointer-events may be helpful: using SVG inside of an HTML button.
In most browsers — Firefox and Internet Explorer 11 are exceptions here — the value of event.target will be an SVG element instead of our HTML button. Let’s add pointer-events="none" to our opening SVG tag.
Now when users click or tap our button, the event.target will refer to our button.
SVG supports the same kind of interactivity we’re used to with HTML. We can use it to create charts that respond to clicks or taps. We can create linked areas that don’t adhere to the CSS and HTML box model. And with the addition of pointer-events, we can improve the way our SVG documents behave in response to user interaction.
Browser support for SVG pointer-events is robust. Every browser that supports SVG supports the property for SVG documents and elements. When used with HTML elements, support is slightly less robust. It isn’t available in Internet Explorer 10 or its predecessors, or any version of Opera Mini.
We’ve just scratched the surface of pointer-events in this piece. For a more in-depth, technical treatment, read through the SVG Specification. MDN (Mozilla Developer Network) Web Docs offers more web developer-friendly documentation for pointer-events, complete with examples.
Landing The Concept: Movie High-Concept Theory And UX Design
Steven Spielberg once famously said, “If a person can tell me the idea in 25 words or less, it’s going to make a pretty good movie.” He was referring to the notion that the best mass-appeal ‘blockbuster’ movies are able to succinctly state their concept or premise in a single short sentence, such as Jaws (“It’s about a shark terrorizing a small town”) and Toy Story (“It’s about some toys that come to life when nobody’s looking”).
What if the same were true for websites? Do sites that explain their ‘concept’ in a simple way have a better shot at mass-appeal with users? If we look at the super simple layout of Google’s homepage, for example, it gives users a single clear message about its concept equally as well as the Jaws movie poster:
Being aware of the importance of ‘high-concept’ allows us — as designers — to really focus on user’s initial impressions. Taking the time to actually define what you want your simple ‘high-concept’ to be before you even begin designing can really help steer you towards the right user experience.
What Does High-Concept Theory Mean For UX Design?
So let’s take this seriously and look at it from a UX Design standpoint. It stands to reason that if you can explain the ‘concept’ or purpose of your site in a simple way you are lowering the cognitive load on new users when they try and understand it and in doing so, you’re drastically increasing your chances of them engaging.
The parallels between ‘High-Concept’ theory and UX Design best practice are clear. Blockbuster audiences prefer simple easy to relate concepts presented in an uncomplicated way. Web users often prefer simpler, easy to digest, UI (User Interface) design, clean layouts, and no clutter.
Regardless of what your message is, presenting it in a simple way is critical to the success of your site’s user experience. But, what about the message itself? Understanding if your message is ‘high-concept’ enough might also be critical to the site’s success.
What Is The Concept Of ‘High-Concept’ In The Online World?
What do we mean when we say ‘high-concept’? For movies it’s simple — it’s what the film is about, the basic storyline that can be easy to put into a single sentence, e.g. Jurassic Park is “about a theme park where dinosaurs are brought back to life.”
When we look at ‘high-concept’ on a website, however, it can really apply to anything: a mission statement, a service offering, or even a new product line. It’s simply the primary message you want to share through your site. If we apply the theory of ‘high-concept’, it tells us that we need to ensure that we convey that message in a simple and succinct style.
What Happens If You Get It Right?
Why is ‘high-concept’ so important? What are the benefits of presenting a ‘high-concept’ UX Design? One of the mistakes we often fall foul of in UX Design is focussing in on the specifics of user tasks and forgetting about the critical importance of initial opinions. In other words, we focus on how users will interact with a site once they’ve chosen to engage with it and miss the decision-making process that comes before everything. Considering ‘high-concept’ allows us to focus on this initial stage.
The basic premise to consider is that we engage better with things we understand and things we feel comfortable with. Ensuring your site presents its message in a simple ‘high-concept’ way will aid initial user engagement. That initial engagement is the critical precursor to all the good stuff that follows: sales, interaction, and a better conversion rate.
How Much Concept Is Too Much Concept?
The real trick is figuring out how much complexity your users can comfortably handle when it comes to positioning your message. You need to focus initially on presenting only high-level information rather than bombarding users with everything upfront. Give users only the level of understanding they need to engage initially with your site and drive them deeper into the journey disclosing more detail as you go.
Netflix does a great job at this. The initial view new users are presented with on the homepage screen is upfront with its super high-concept — ‘we do video content’ once users have engaged with this premise they are taken further into the proposition — more information is disclosed, prices, process, and so on.
When To Land Your High-Concept?
As you decide how to layout the site, another critical factor to consider is when you choose to introduce your initial ‘high-concept’ to your users. It’s key to remember how rare it is that users follow a nice simple linear journey through your site starting at the homepage. The reality is that organic user journeys sometimes start with search results. As a result, the actual interaction with your site begins on the page that’s most relevant to the user’s query. With this in mind, it’s critical to consider how the premise of your site appears to users on key entry pages for your site wherever they appear in the overall hierarchy.
Another key point to consider when introducing the message of your site is that in many scenarios users will be judging whether to engage with you way before they even reach your site. If the first time you present your concept to users is via a Facebook ad or an email campaign, then implementation is drastically different. However, the theory should be the same, i.e. to ensure you present your message in that single sentence ‘high-concept’ style way with potential users.
How To Communicate Your High-Concept
Thus far, we’ve talked about how aiming for ‘high-concept’ messages can increase engagement — but how do we do this? Firstly, let’s focus on the obvious methods such as the wording you use (or don’t use).
Before you even begin designing, sit down and focus in on what you want the premise of your site to be. From there, draw out your straplines or headings to reflect that premise. Make sure you rely on content hierarchy though, use your headings to land the concept, and don’t bury messages that are critical to understanding deep in your body copy.
Here’s a nice example from Spotify. They achieve a ‘high-concept’ way of positioning their service through a simple, uncluttered combination of imagery and wording:
Single Sentence Wording
It’s key to be as succinct as possible: the shorter your message is, the more readable it becomes. The true balancing act comes in deciding where to draw the line between too little to give enough understanding and too much to make it easily readable.
If we take the example of Google Drive — it’s a relatively complex service, but it’s presented in a very basic high-concept way — initially a single sentence that suggests security and simplicity:
Then the next level of site lands just a little more of the concept of the service but still keeping in a simple single sentence under 25 words (Spielberg would be pleased):
It doesn’t just stop with your wording as there is a myriad of other elements on the page that you can leverage to land your concept. The explainer video is used to great effect by Amazon to introduce users to the concept of Amazon Go. In reality, it’s a highly complex technical trial of machine learning, computer visual recognition, and AI (artificial intelligence) to reimagine the shopping experience. As it’s simply framed on the site, it can be explained in a ‘high-concept’ way.
Amazon gives users a single sentence and also, crucially, makes the whole header section a simple explainer video about the service.
The imagery you use can be used to quickly and simply convey powerful messages about your concept without the need to complicate your UI with other elements. Save the Children use imagery to great effect to quickly show the users the critical importance of their work arguably better than they ever could with wording.
Font And Color
It’s key to consider every element of your site as a potential mechanism for helping you communicate your purpose to your users, through the font or the color choices. For example, rather than having to explicitly tell users that your site is aimed at academics or children you can craft your UI to help show that.
Users have existing mental models that you can appeal to. For example, bright colors and childlike fonts suggest the site is aimed at children, serif fonts and limited color use often suggest a much more serious or academic subject matter. Therefore, when it comes to landing the concept of your site, consider these as important allies to communicate with your users without having to complicate your message.
So far, we’ve focused primarily on using messaging to communicate the concept to users. Still, what if the primary goal of your page is just to get users to interact with a specific element? For example, if you offer some kind of tool? If that’s the case, then showing the interface of this tool itself is often the best way to communicate its purpose to users.
This ties in with the concept of ‘Design Affordance’ — the idea that the form of a design should communicate its purpose. It stands to reason that sometimes the best way to tell users about your simple tool with an easy to use interface — is to show them that interface.
If we look at Airbnb, a large part of the Airbnb concept is the online tool that allows the searching and viewing of results; they use this to great effect on this landing page design by showing the data entry view for that search. Showing users how easy it is to search while also presenting them the with simple messaging about the Airbnb concept.
How To Test You’ve Landed It
Now that you’ve designed your site and you’re happy that it pitches its concept almost as well as an 80s blockbuster — but how can you validate that? It would be lovely to check things over with a few rounds of in-depth lab-based user research, but in reality, you’ll seldom have the opportunity, and you’ll find yourself relying on more ‘guerilla’ methods.
One of the simplest and most effective methodologies to check how ‘high-concept’ your site is is the ‘5 second’ or ‘glance’ test. The simple test involves showing someone the site for 5 seconds and then hiding it from view. Then, users can then be asked questions about what they can recall about the site. The idea being that in 5 seconds they only have the opportunity to view what is immediately obvious.
Here are some examples of questions to ask to get a sense of how well the concept of your site comes across:
Can you remember the name of the site you just saw?
What do you think is the purpose of the page you just saw?
Was it obvious what the site you just saw offers?
Do you think you would use the site you just saw?
Using this test with a decent number of people who match your target users should give some really valuable insight into how well your design conveys the purpose of your site and if indeed you’ve managed to achieve ‘high-concept’.
Putting It All Into Practice
Let’s try implementing all this knowledge in the real world? In terms of taking this and turning it into a practical approach, I try and follow these simple steps for every project:
Aim For High-Concept When you’re establishing the purpose of any new site (or page or ad) try and boil it down to a single, simple, overarching ‘High-Concept.’
Write It Down Document what you want that key concept to be in 25 words or less.
Refer Back Constantly refer back to that concept throughout the design process. From picking your fonts and colors to crafting your headline content — ensure that it all supports that High-Concept you wrote down.
Test It Once complete use the 5-second test on your design with a number of users and compare their initial thoughts to your initial High-Concept. If they correlate, then great, if not head back to step 3 and try again.
In this article, we have discussed the simple rule of making blockbuster movies, and we have applied that wisdom to web design. No ‘shock plot twist’ — just some common sense. The first time someone comes into contact with your website, it’s vital to think about what you want the initial message to be. If you want mass market appeal, then craft it into a ‘high-concept’ message that Spielberg himself would be proud of!
CSS Custom Properties (sometimes known as ‘CSS variables’) are now supported in all modern browsers, and people are starting to use them in production. This is great, but they’re different from variables in preprocessors, and I’ve already seen many examples of people using them without considering what advantages they offer.
How Are They Similar To Variables In Preprocessors?
Custom Properties are a little bit like variables in preprocessors but have very some important differences. The first and most obvious difference is the syntax.
With SCSS we use a dollar symbol to denote a variable:
In Less we use an @ symbol:
Custom properties follow a similar conventions and use a -- prefix:
One important difference between custom properties and variables in preprocessors is that custom properties have a different syntax for assigning a value and retrieving that value. When retrieving the value of a custom property we use the var() function.
The next most obvious difference is in the name. They are called ‘custom properties’ because they really are CSS properties. In preprocessors, you can declare and use variables almost anywhere, including outside declaration blocks, in media rules, or even as part of a selector.
Most of the examples above would be invalid using custom properties.
Custom properties have the same rules about where they can be used as normal CSS properties. It’s far better to think of them as dynamic properties than variables. That means they can only be used inside a declaration block, or in other words, custom properties are tied to a selector. This can be the :root selector, or any other valid selector.
You can retrieve the value of a custom property anywhere you would otherwise use a value in a property declaration. This means they can be used as a single value, as part of a shorthand statement or even inside calc() equations.
However, they cannot be used in media rules, or selectors including :nth-child().
There is probably a lot more you want to know about the syntax and how custom properties work, such as how to use fallback values and can you assign variables to other variables (yes), but this basic introduction should be enough to understand the rest of the concepts in this article. For more information on the specifics of how custom properties work, you can read “It’s Time To Start Using Custom Properties” written by Serg Hospodarets.
Dynamic vs. Static
Cosmetic differences aside, the most significant difference between variables in preprocessors and custom properties is how they are scoped. We can refer to variables as either statically or dynamically scoped. Variables in preprocessors are static whereas custom properties are dynamic.
Where CSS is concerned static means that you can update the value of a variable at different points in the compilation process, but this cannot change the value of the code that came before it.
Once this is rendered to CSS, the variables are gone. This means that we could potentially read an .scss file and determine it’s output without knowing anything about the HTML, browser or other inputs. This is not the case with custom properties.
Preprocessors do have a kind of “block scope” where variables can be temporarily changed inside a selector, function or mixin. This changes the value of a variable inside the block, but it’s still static. This is tied to the block, not the selector. In the example below, the variable $background is changed inside the .example block. It changes back to the initial value outside the block, even if we use the same selector.
Custom properties work differently. Where custom properties are concerned, dynamically scoped means they are subject to inheritance and the cascade. The property is tied to a selector and if the value changes, this affects all matching DOM elements just like any other CSS property.
@media screen and (min-width: 600px)
We don’t have to change where the custom property is used — we change the value of the custom property with CSS. This means using the same custom property, we can have different values in different places or context on the same page.
Global vs. Local
CSS is similar. We have some things that are applied globally and some things that are more local. Brand colors, vertical spacing, and typography are all examples of things you might want to be applied globally and consistently across your website or application. We also have local things. For example, a button component might have a small and large variant. You wouldn’t want the sizes from these buttons to be applied to all input elements or even every element on the page.
CSS Custom Properties are by default locally scoped to the specific selectors we apply them to. So they are kinda like local variables. However, custom properties are also inherited, so in many situations they behave like global variables — especially when applied to the :root selector. This means that we need to be thoughtful about how to use them.
So many examples show custom properties being applied to the :root element and although, this fine for a demo, it can result in a messy global scope and unintended issues with inheritance. Luckily, we’ve already learned these lessons.
Global Variables Tend To Be Static
There are a few small exceptions, but generally speaking, most global things in CSS are also static.
Global variables like brand colors, typography and spacing don’t tend to change much from one component to the next. When they do change this tends to be a global rebranding or some other significant change that rarely happens on a mature product. It still makes sense for these things to be variables, they are used in many places, and variables help with consistency. But it doesn’t make sense for them to be dynamic. The value of these variables does not change in any dynamic way.
For this reason, I strongly recommend using preprocessors for global (static) variables. This not only ensures that they are always static, but it visually denotes them within the code. This can make CSS a whole lot more readable and easier to maintain.
Local Static Variables Are OK (Sometimes)
You might think given the strong stance on global variables being static, that by reflection, all local variables might need to be dynamic. While it’s true that local variables do tend to be dynamic, this is nowhere near as strong as the tendency for a global variable to be static.
Locally static variables are perfectly OK in many situations. I use preprocessors variables in component files mostly as a developer convenience.
Consider the classic example of a button component with multiple size variations.
Obviously, this example would make more sense if I was using the variables multiple times or deriving margin and padding values from the size variables. However, the ability to quickly prototype different sizes might be a sufficient reason.
Because most static variables are global, I like to differentiate static variables that are used only inside a component. To do this, you can prefix these variables with the component name, or you could use another prefix such as c-variable-name for component or l-variable-name for local. You can use whatever prefix you want, or you can prefix global variables. Whatever you choose, it’s helpful to differentiate especially if converting an existing codebase to use custom properties.
When To Use Custom Properties
I suspect we will always use some form of static variables, although we might need fewer in future, as custom properties offer new ways to organise logic and code. Until then, I think in most situations we are going to be working with a combination of preprocessor variables and custom properties.
It’s helpful to know that we can assign static variables to custom properties. Whether they are global or local, it makes sense in many situations to convert static variables, to locally dynamic custom properties.
Note: Did you know that $var is valid value for a custom property? Recent versions of Sass recognize this, and therefore we need to interpolate variables assigned to custom properties, like this: #$var. This tells Sass you want to output the value of the variable, rather than just $var in the stylesheet. This is only needed for situations like custom properties, where a variable names can also be a valid CSS.
If we take the button example above and decide all buttons should use the small variation on mobile devices, regardless of the class applied in the HTML, this is now a more dynamic situation. For this, we should use custom properties.
Here I create a single custom property: --button-size. This custom property is initially scoped to all button elements using the btn class. I then change the value of --button-size above 600px for the classes btn-med and btn-lrg. Finally, I apply this custom property to all button elements in one place.
Don’t Be Too Clever
The dynamic nature of custom properties allows us to create some clever and complicated components.
With the introduction of preprocessors, many of us created libraries with clever abstractions using mixins and custom functions. In limited cases, examples like this are still useful today, but for the most part, the longer I work with preprocessors the fewer features I use. Today, I use preprocessors almost exclusively for static variables.
Custom properties will not (and should not) be immune from this type of experimentation, and I look forward to seeing many clever examples. But in the long run, readable and maintainable code will always win over clever abstractions (at least in production).
I read an excellent article on this topic on the Free Code Camp Medium recently. It was written by Bill Sourour and is called “Don’t Do It At Runtime. Do It At Design Time.” Rather than paraphrasing his arguments, I’ll let you read it.
One key difference between preprocessor variables and custom properties is that custom properties work at runtime. This means things that might have been borderline acceptable, in terms of complexity, with preprocessors might not be a good idea with custom properties.
One example that illustrated this for me recently was this:
This generates a modular scale. A modular scale is a series of numbers that relate to each other using a ratio. They are often used in web design and development to set font-sizes or spacing.
In this example, each custom property is determined using calc(), by taking the value of the previous custom property and multiplying this by the ratio. Doing this, we can get the next number in the scale.
This means the ratios are calculated at run-time and you can change them by updating only the value of the --font-scale property. For example:
@media screen and (min-width: 800px)
This is clever, concise and much quicker than calculating all the values again should you want to change the scale. It’s also something I would not do in production code.
Although the above example is useful for prototyping, in production, I’d much prefer to see something like this:
Similar to the example in Bill’s article, I find it helpful to see what the actual values are. We read code many more times than we write it and global values such as font scales change infrequently in production.
The above example is still not perfect. It violates the rule from earlier that global values should be static. I’d much prefer to use preprocessor variables and convert them to locally dynamic custom properties using the techniques demonstrated earlier.
It is also important to avoid situations where we go from using one custom property to a different custom property. This can happen when we name properties like this.
Change The Value Not The Variable
Change the value not the variable is one of the most important strategies for using custom properties effectively.
As a general rule, you should never change which custom property is used for any single purpose.
It’s easy to do because this is exactly how we do things with preprocessors, but it makes little sense with custom properties.
In this example, we have two custom properties that are used on an example component. I switch from using the value of --font-size-small to --font-size-large depending on the screen size.
Finally, in a single place, I use the value of this custom property:
In this example and others before it, media queries have only been used to change the value of custom properties. You might also notice there is only one place where the var() statement is used, and regular CSS properties are updated.
This separation between variable declarations and property declarations is intentional. There are many reasons for this, but the benefits are most obvious when thinking about responsive design.
Responsive Design With Custom Properties
One of the difficulties with responsive design when it relies heavily on media queries is that the no matter how you organize your CSS, styles relating to a particular component become fragmented across the stylesheet.
It can be very difficult to know what CSS properties are going to change. Still, CSS Custom Properties can help us organize some of the logic related to responsive design and make working with media queries a lot easier.
If It Changes It’s A Variable
Properties that change using media queries are inherently dynamic and custom properties provide the means to express dynamic values in CSS. This means that if you are using a media query to change any CSS property, you should place this value in a custom property.
You can then move this, along with all the media rules, hover states or any dynamic selectors that define how the value changes, to the top of the document.
Separate Logic From Design
When done correctly, separation of logic and design means that media queries are only be used to change the value of custom properties. It means all the logic related to responsive design should be at the top of the document, and wherever we see a var() statement in our CSS, we immediately know that this property that changes. With traditional methods of writing CSS, there was no way of knowing this at a glance.
Many of us got very good at reading and interpreting CSS at a glance while tracking in our head which properties changed in different situations. I’m tired of this, and I don’t want to do this anymore! Custom properties now provide a link between logic and its implementation, so we don’t need to track this, and that is incredibly useful!
The Logic Fold
The idea of declaring variables at the top of a document or function is not a new idea. It’s something we do in most languages, and it’s now something we can do in CSS as well. Writing CSS in this way creates a clear visual distinction between CSS at the top of the document and below. I need a way to differentiate these sections when I talk about them and the idea of a “logic fold” is a metaphor I’ve started using.
Above the fold contains all preprocessor variables and custom properties. This includes all the different values a custom property can have. It should be easy to trace how a custom property changes.
CSS below the fold is straightforward and highly declarative and easy to read. It feels like CSS before media queries and other necessary complexities of modern CSS.
Take a look at a really simple example of a six column flexbox grid system:
We immediately know --row-display is a value that changes. Initially, it will be block, so the flex values will be ignored.
This example is fairly simple, but if we expanded it to include a flexible width column that fills the remaining space, it’s likely flex-grow, flex-shrink and flex-basis values would need to be converted to custom properties. You can try this or take a look at a more detailed example here.
Custom Properties For Theming
I’ve mostly argued against using custom properties for global dynamic variables and hopefully implied that attaching custom properties to the :root selector is in many cases considered harmful. But every rule has an exception, and for custom properties, it’s theming.
Limited use of global custom properties can make theming a whole lot easier.
Theming generally refers to letting users customize the UI in some way. This could be something like changing colors on a profile page. Or it might be something more localized. For example, you can choose the color of a note in the Google Keep application.
Theming usually involves compiling a separate stylesheet to override a default value with user preferences, or compiling a different stylesheet for each user. Both of these can be difficult and have an impact on performance.
With custom properties, we don’t need to compile a different stylesheet; we only need to update the value of properties according to the user’s preferences. Since they are inherited values, if we do this on the root element they can be used anywhere in our application.
Capitalize Global Dynamic Properties
Custom properties are case sensitive and since most custom properties will be local, if you are using global dynamic properties, it can make sense to capitalize them.
Capitalization of variables often signifies global constants. For us, this is going to signify that the property is set elsewhere in the application and that we should probably not change it locally.
Avoid Directly Setting Global Dynamic Properties
Custom properties accept a fallback value. It can be a useful to avoid directly overwriting the value of a global custom properties and keep user values separate. We can use the fallback value to do this.
The example above sets the value of --THEME-COLOR to the value of --user-theme-color if it exists. If --user-theme-color is not set, the value of #d33a2c will be used. This way, we don’t need to provide a fallback every time we use --THEME-COLOR.
You might expect in the example below that the background will be set to green. However, the value of --user-theme-color has not been set on the root element, so the value of --THEME-COLOR has not changed.
--THEME-COLOR: var(--user-theme-color, #d33a2c);
Indirectly setting global dynamic properties like this protects them from being overwritten locally and ensures user settings are always inherited from the root element. This is a useful convention to safeguard your theme values and avoid unintended inheritance.
If we do want to expose specific properties to inheritance, we can replace the :root selector with a * selector:
--THEME-COLOR: var(--user-theme-color, #d33a2c);
Now the value of --THEME-COLOR is recalculated for every element and therefore the local value of --user-theme-color can be used. In other words, the background color in this example will be green.
Here I set a default value for --note-color and scope this to the .note component. I keep the variable declaration separate from the property declaration, even in this simple example.
const elm = document.querySelector('#note-uid');
I then target a specific instance of a .note element and change the value of the --note-color custom property for that element only. This will now have higher specificity than the default value.
You can see how this works with this example using React. These user preferences could be saved in local storage or in the case of a larger application perhaps in a database.
Manipulating Color With Custom Properties
In addition to hex values and named colors, CSS has colors function such as rgb() and hsl(). These allow us to specify individual components of a color such as the hue or lightness. Custom properties can be used in conjunction with color functions.
background: hsl(var(--hue), 80%, 50%);
This is useful, but some of the most widely used features of preprocessors are advanced color functions that allow us to manipulate color using functions like lighten, darken or desaturate:
It would be useful to have some of these features in browsers. They are coming, but until we have native color modification functions in CSS, custom properties could fill some of that gap.
We’ve seen that custom properties can be used inside existing color functions like rgb() and hsl() but they can also be used in calc(). This means that we can convert a real number to a percentage by multiplying it, e.g. calc(50 * 1%) = 50%.
background: hsl(25, 80%, calc(var(--lightness) * 1%));
The reason we want to store the lightness value as a real number is so that we can manipulate it with calc before converting it to a percentage. For example, if I want to darken a color by 20%, I can multiply its lightness by 0.8. We can make this a little easier to read by separating the lightness calculation into a locally scoped custom property:
Custom properties also allow as to move some of the complexity of theming into the CSS and this complexity can have a negative impact on the maintainability of your CSS, so remember to keep it simple wherever possible.
Using Custom Properties Today
Even if you’re supporting IE10 and 11, you can start using custom properties today. Most of the examples in this article have to do with how we write and structure CSS. The benefits are significant in terms of maintainability, however, most of the examples only reduce what could otherwise be done with more complex code.
I use a tool called postcss-css-variables to convert most of the features of custom properties into a static representation of the same code. Other similar tools ignore custom properties inside media queries or complex selectors treating custom properties much like preprocessor variables.
Loading The Correct Stylesheet
There are many ways you can use postCSS. I use a gulp process to compile separate stylesheets for newer and older browsers. A simplified version of my gulp task looks like this:
import gulp from "gulp";
import sass from "gulp-sass";
import postcss from "gulp-postcss";
import rename from "gulp-rename";
import cssvariables from "postcss-css-variables";
import autoprefixer from "autoprefixer";
import cssnano from "cssnano";
gulp.task("css-no-vars", () =>
.pipe(rename( extname: ".no-vars.css" ))
gulp.task("css", () =>
.pipe(rename( extname: ".css" ))
This results in two CSS files: a regular one with custom properties (styles.css) and one for older browsers (styles.no-vars.css). I want IE10 and 11 to be served styles.no-vars.css and other browsers to get the regular CSS file.
Normally, I’d advocate using feature queries but IE11 doesn’t support feature queries and we’ve used custom properties so extensively that serving a different stylesheet makes sense in this case.
Intelligently serving a different stylesheet and avoiding a flash of unstyled content is not a simple task. If you don’t need the dynamic features of custom properties, you could consider serving all browser styles.no-vars.css and using custom properties simply as a development tool.
If you want to take full advantage of all the dynamic features of custom properties, I suggest using a critical CSS technique. Following these techniques, the main stylesheet is loaded asynchronously while the critical CSS is rendered inline. Your page header might look something like this:
We can extend this to load either styles.css or styles.no-vars.css depending on whether the browser supports custom properties. We can detect support like this:
if ( window.CSS && CSS.supports('color', 'var(--test)') )
If you’ve been struggling to organize CSS efficiently, have difficulty with responsive components, want to implement client-side theming, or just want to start off on the right foot with custom properties, this guide should tell you everything you need to know.
It comes down to understanding the difference between dynamic and static variables in CSS as well as a few simple rules:
Separate logic from design;
If a CSS property changes, consider using a custom property;
Change the value of custom properties, not which custom property is used;
Global variables are usually static.
If you follow these conventions, you will find that working with custom properties is a whole lot easier than you think. This might even change how you approach CSS in general.
We know that marketers try and use different A/B testing tools with the intent of discovering the one that works the best. This repeated trial and error method wastes valuable time and energy because the process of finding the perfect A/B Testing tool almost never ends.
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Building Mobile Apps Using React Native And WordPress
As web developers, you might have thought that mobile app development calls for a fresh learning curve with another programming language. Perhaps Java and Swift need to be added to your skill set to hit the ground running with both iOS and Android, and that might bog you down.
But this article has you in for a surprise! We will look at building an e-commerce application for iOS and Android using the WooCommerce platform as our backend. This would be an ideal starting point for anyone willing to get into native cross-platform development.
A Brief History Of Cross-Platform Development
It’s 2011, and we see the beginning of hybrid mobile app development. Frameworks like Apache Cordova, PhoneGap, and Ionic Framework slowly emerge. Everything looks good, and web developers are eagerly coding away mobile apps with their existing knowledge.
However, mobile apps still looked like mobile versions of websites. No native designs like Android’s material design or iOS’s flat look. Navigation worked similar to the web and transitions were not buttery smooth. Users were not satisfied with apps built using the hybrid approach and dreamt of the native experience.
Furthermore, changes done to the code during development are loaded onto the testing devices almost instantly! This used to take several minutes when we had native development through other approaches. Developers are able to enjoy the instant feedback they used to love with web development.
React developers are more than happy to be able to use existing patterns they have followed into a new platform altogether. In fact, they are targeting two more platforms with what they already know very well.
This is all good for front-end development. But what choices do we have for back-end technology? Do we still have to learn a new language or framework?
The WordPress REST API
In late 2016, WordPress released the much awaited REST API to its core, and opened the doors for solutions with decoupled backends.
So, if you already have a WordPress and WooCommerce website and wish to retain exactly the same offerings and user profiles across your website and native app, this article is for you!
Assumptions Made In This Article
I will walk you through using your WordPress skill to build a mobile app with a WooCommerce store using React Native. The article assumes:
You are familiar with the different WordPress APIs, at least at a beginner level.
You are familiar with the basics of React.
You have a WordPress development server ready. I use Ubuntu with Apache.
You have an Android or an iOS device to test with Expo.
What We Will Build In This Tutorial
The project we are going to build through this article is a fashion store app. The app will have the following functionalities:
Shop page listing all products,
Single product page with details of the selected item,
‘Add to cart’ feature,
‘Show items in cart’ feature,
‘Remove item from cart’ feature.
This article aims to inspire you to use this project as a starting point to build complex mobile apps using React Native.
We will begin building the app as per the official React Native documentation. Having installed Node on your development environment, open up the command prompt and type in the following command to install the Create React Native App globally.
This will create a new React Native project which we can test with Expo.
Next, we will need to install the Expo app on our mobile device which we want to test. It is available for both iOS and Android.
On having installed the Expo app, we can run npm start on our development machine.
After that, you can scan the QR code through the Expo app or enter the given URL in the app’s search bar. This will run the basic ‘Hello World’ app in the mobile. We can now edit App.js to make instant changes to the app running on the phone.
Alternatively, you can run the app on an emulator. But for brevity and accuracy, we will cover running it on an actual device.
Next, let’s install all the required packages for the app using this command:
Since this article is about creating a React Native app, we will not go into details about creating a WordPress site. Please refer to this article on how to install WordPress on Ubuntu. As WooCommerce REST API requires HTTPS, please make sure it is set up using Let’s Encrypt. Please refer to this article for a how-to guide.
We are not creating a WordPress installation on localhost since we will be running the app on a mobile device, and also since HTTPS is needed.
Once WordPress and HTTPS are successfully set up, we can install the WooCommerce plugin on the site.
After installing and activating the plugin, continue with the WooCommerce store setup by following the wizard. After the wizard is complete, click on ‘Return to dashboard.’
You will be greeted by another prompt.
Click on ‘Let’s go‘ to ‘Add example products’. This will save us the time to create our own products to display in the app.
To load our store’s products from the WooCommerce REST API, we need the relevant keys in place inside our app. For this purpose, we can have a constans.js file.
First create a folder called ‘src’ and create subfolders inside as follows:
Now, let’s generate the keys for WooCommerce. In the WordPress dashboard, navigate to WooCommerce → Settings → API → Keys/Apps and click on ‘Add Key.’
Next create a Read Only key with name React Native. Copy over the Consumer Key and Consumer Secret to the constants.js file as follows:
React Navigation is a community solution to navigating between the different screens and is a standalone library. It allows developers to set up the screens of the React Native app with just a few lines of code.
There are different navigation methods within React Navigation:
For our Application we will use a combination of StackNavigation and DrawerNavigation to navigate between the different screens. StackNavigation is similar to how browser history works on the web. We are using this since it provides an interface for the header and the header navigation icons. It has push and pop similar to stacks in data structures. Push means we add a new screen to the top of the Navigation Stack. Pop removes a screen from the stack.
The code shows that the StackNavigation, in fact, houses the DrawerNavigation within itself. It also takes properties for the header style and header buttons. We are placing the navigation drawer button to the left and the shopping cart button to the right. The drawer button switches the drawer on and off whereas the cart button takes the user to the shopping cart screen.
DrawerNavigation on the other hands provides for the side drawer which will allow us to navigate between Home, Shop, and Cart. The DrawerNavigator lists the different screens that the user can visit, namely Home page, Products page, Product page, and Cart page. It also has a property which will take the Drawer container: the sliding menu which opens up when clicking the hamburger menu.
This page contains details of a selected product. It shows the user the name, price, and description of the product. It also has the ‘Add to cart’ function.
This screen shows the list of items in the cart. The action has the functions getCart, addToCart, and removeFromCart. The reducer handles the actions likewise. Identification of actions is done through actionTypes — constants which describe the action that are stored in a separate file.
As you can see, we are using a FlatList to iterate through the cart items. It takes in an array and creates a list of items to be displayed on the screen.
You can configure information about the app such as name and icon in the app.json file. The app can be published after npm installing exp.
To sum up:
We now have a decent e-commerce application with React Native;
Expo can be used to run the project on a smartphone;
Existing backend technologies such as WordPress can be used;
Redux can be used for managing the state of the entire app;
Web developers, especially React developers can leverage this knowledge to build bigger apps.
For the full application, you can visit my project on Github and clone it. Feel free to fork it and improve it further. As an exercise, you can continue building more features into the project such as:
Storing the cart data in AsyncStorage so that closing the app does not clear the cart.
Design has a large impact on content visibility — so does SEO. However, there are some key SEO concepts that experts in the field struggle to communicate clearly to designers. This can create friction and the impression that most well-designed websites are very poorly optimized for SEO.
Here is an overview of what we will be covering in this article:
Design mobile first for Google,
Structure content for organic visibility,
Focus on user intent (not keywords),
Send the right signals with internal linking,
A crash course on image SEO,
Penalties for pop-ups,
Say it like you mean it: voice search and assistants.
Design Mobile First For Google
This year, Google plans on indexing websites mobile first:
Our algorithms will eventually primarily use the mobile version of a site’s content to rank pages from that site, to understand structured data, and to show snippets from those pages in our results.
So, How Does This Affect Websites In Terms Of Design?
Well, it means that your website should be responsive. Responsive design isn’t about making elements fit on various screens. It is about usability. This requires shifting your thinking towards designing a consistent, high-quality experience across multiple devices.
Here are a few things that users care about when it comes to a website:
Flexible texts and images. People should be able to view images and read texts. No one likes looking at pixels hoping they morph into something readable or into an image.
Defined breakpoints for design changes (you can do that via CSS media queries).
Being able to use your website on all devices. This can mean being able to use your website in portrait or landscape mode without losing half of the features or having buttons that do not work.
A fluid site grid that aims to maintain proportions.
We won’t go into details about how to create a remarkable responsive website as this is not the main topic. However, if you want to take a deep dive into this fascinating subject, may I recommend a Smashing Book 5?
Do you need a concrete visual to help you understand why you must think about the mobile side of things from the get-go? Stéphanie Walter provided a great visual to get the point across:
Crafting Content For Smaller Screens
Your content should be as responsive as your design. The first step to making content responsive for your users is to understand user behavior and preferences.
Content should be so riveting that users scroll to read more of it;
Stop thinking in terms of text. Animated gifs, videos, infographics are all very useful types of content that are very mobile-friendly;
Keep your headlines short enticing. You need to convince visitors to click on an article, and a wall of text won’t achieve that;
Different devices can sometimes mean different expectations or different user needs. Your content should reflect that.
SEO tip regarding responsive design:
Google offers a mobile-friendly testing tool. Careful though: This tool helps you meet Google’s design standards, but it doesn’t mean that your website is perfectly optimized for a mobile experience.
Test how the Google bot sees your website with the “Fetch and render” feature in Google Search Console. You can test desktop and mobile formats to see how a human user and Google bot will see your site.
Content Structure For Organic Visibility
SEO experts think of page organization in terms that are accessible for a search engine bot. This means that we look at a page design to quickly establish what is an H1, H2, and an H3 tag. Content organization should be meaningful. This means that it should act as a path that the bot can follow. If all of this sounds familiar to you, it may be due to the fact that content hierarchy is also used to improve accessibility. There are some slight differences between how SEO and accessibility use H tags:
SEO focuses on H1 through H3 tags whereas accessibility makes use of all H tags (H1 through H6).
SEO experts recommend using a single H1 tag per page whereas accessibility handles multiple H1 tags per page. Although Google has said in the past that it accepts multiple H1 tags on a page, years of experience have shown that a single H1 tag is better to help you rank.
SEO experts investigate content structure by displaying the headings on a page. You do the same type of check quickly by using the Web Developer Toolbar extension (available on Chrome and Firefox) by Chris Pederick. If you go into the information section and click on “View Document Outline,” a tab with the content hierarchy will open in your browser.
Bonus:If the content structure of your pages is easy to understand and geared towards common user queries, then Google may show it in “position zero” (a result that shows a content snippet above the first results).
You can see how this can help you increase your overall visibility in search engine result pages below:
SEO Tip To Get Content Hierarchy Right
Content hierarchy should not include sidebars, headers or footer. Why? Because if we are talking about a chocolate recipe and the first thing you present to the robot is content from your sidebar touting a signup form for your newsletter, it’s falling short of user expectations (hint: unless a newsletter signup promises a slice of chocolate cake for dinner, you are about to have very disappointed users).
If we go back to the Canva page, you can see that “related articles” and other H tags should not be part of the content hierarchy of this page as they do not reflect the content of this specific page. Although HTML5 standards recommend using H tags for sidebars, headers, and footers, it’s not very compatible with SEO.
Content Quantity Shifts: Long Form Content Is On The Rise
Creating flagship content is important to rank in Google. In copywriting terms, this type of content is often part of a cornerstone page. It can take the shape of a tutorial, an FAQ page, but cornerstone content is the foundation to a well-ranked website. As such, it is a prized asset for inbound marketing to attract visits, backlinks and position a brand in a niche.
In the olden days, 400-word pages were considered to be “long form” content to rank in Google. Today, long-form content that is 1000, 2000 or even 3000 words long outranks short form content very often. This means that you need to start planning and designing to make long-form content engaging and scrollable. Design interactions should be aesthetically pleasing and create a consistent experience even for mammoth content like cornerstone pages. Long form content is a great way to create an immersive and engaging experience.
A great example of the power of long-form content tied-in with user search intent is the article about intrusive interstitials on Smashing. Most users will call interstitials “pop-ups” because that is how many of us think of these things. In this case, in Google.com, the article ranks right after the official Google guidelines (and it makes sense that Google should be number 1 on their own branded query) but Smashing magazine is shown as a “position 0” snippet of text on the query “Google pop up guidelines” in Google.com.. Search Engine Land, a high-quality SEO blog that is a pillar of the community is ranking after Smashing (which happens to be more of a design blog than an SEO one).
Of course, these results are ever-changing thanks to machine learning, location data, language and a slew of other ranking factors. However, it is a nice indicator that user intent and long-form content are a great way to get accrued visibility from your target audience.
Search engines have evolved in leaps and bounds these past few years. Google’s aim has always been to have their bot mimic human behavior to help evaluate websites. This meant that Search engine optimization has moved beyond “keywords” and seeks to understand the intent behind the search query a user types in Google.
For example, if you work to optimize content for an Android banking application and do a keyword research, you will see that oftentimes the words “free iPad” come up in North America. This doesn’t make sense until you realize that most banks used to run promotions that would offer free iPads for every new account opened. In light of this, we know that using “free iPad” as a keyword for an Android application used by a bank that is not running this type of promotion is not a good idea.
User intent matters unless you want to rank on terms that will bring you unqualified traffic. Does this mean that keyword research is now useless? Of course not! It just means that the way we approach keyword research is now infused with a UX-friendly approach.
Researching User Intent
User experience is critical for SEO. We also focus on user intent. The search queries a user makes give us valuable insights as to how people think about content, products, and services. Researching user intent can help uncover the hopes, problems, and desires of your users. Google approaches user intent by focusing on micro-moments. Micro-moments can be defined as intent profiles that seek information through search results. Here are the four big micro-moments:
I want to know. Users want information or inspiration at this stage. The queries are quite often conversational — it starts with a problem. Since users don’t know the solution or sometimes the words to describe their interest, queries will always be a bit vaguer.
I want to go. Location, location, location! Queries that signal a local intent are gaining ground. We don’t want any type of restaurant; the one that matters is the one that’s closest to us/the best in our area. Well, this can be seen in queries that include “near me” or a specific city or neighborhood. Localization is important to humans.
I want to do. People also search for things that they want to do. This is where tutorials are key. Advertising promises fast weight loss, but a savvy entrepreneur should tell you HOW you can lose weight in detail.
I want to buy. Customers showcase intent to buy quite clearly online. They want “deals” or “reviews” to make their decision.
Uncovering User Intent
Your UX or design strategy should reflect these various stages of user intent. Little tweaks in the words you make can make a big difference. So how does one go about uncovering user intent? We recommend you install Google Search Console to gain insights as to how users find you. This free tool helps you discover some of the keywords users search for to find your content. Let’s look at two tools that can help you uncover or validate user intent. Best of all, they are free!
Google Trends is a great way to validate if something’s popularity is on the rise, waning or steady. It provides data locally and allows you to compare two queries to see which one is more popular. This tool is free and easily accessible (compared to the Keyword Planner tool in AdWords that requires an account and more hassle).
Answer The Public
Answer The Public is a great way to quickly see what people are looking for on Google. Better yet, you can do so by language and get a wonderful sunburst visual for your efforts! It’s not as precise as some of the tools SEO experts use but keep in mind that we’re not asking designers and UX experts to become search engine optimization gurus! Note: this tool won’t provide you stats or local data (it won’t give you data just for England for example). No need for a tutorial here, just head on over and try it out!
Bonus Tool: Serpstat “Search Questions”
Full disclosure, I use other premium tools as part of my own SEO toolkit. Serpstat is a premium content marketing toolkit, but it’s actually affordable and allows you to dig much deeper into user intent. It helps provide me with information I never expected to find. Case in point, a few months ago, I got to learn that quite a few people in North America were confused about why bathtubs would let light shine through. The answer was easy to me; most bathtubs are made of fiberglass (not metal like in the olden days). It turns out, not everyone is clear on that and some customers needed to be reassured on this point.
If you head on to the “content marketing” section, you can access “Questions.” You can input a keyword and see how it is used in various queries. You can export the results.
This tool will also help you spy on the competition’s content marketing efforts, determine what queries your website ranks on in various countries and what your top SEO pages are.
Internal Linking: Because We All Have Our Favorite Pages
The links you have on your website are signaling to search engines bots which pages you find more valuable over others in your website. It’s one of the central concerns for SEOs looking to optimize contents on a site. A well-thought-out internal linking structure provide SEO and UX benefits:
Internal linking helps organize content based on different categories than the regular navigation;
It provides more ways for users to interact with your website;
It shows search engine bots which pages are important from your perspective;
It provides a clear label for each link and provides context.
Here’s a quick primer in internal linking:
The homepage tends to be the most authoritative page on a website. As such, it’s a great page to point to other pages you want to give an SEO boost to.
All pages within one link of the home page will often be interpreted by search engine bots as being important.
Stop using generic keyword anchors across your website. It could come across as spammy. “Read more” and “click here” provide very little context for users and bots alike.
Leverage navigation bars, menus, footers and breadcrumb links to provide ample visibility for your key pages.
CTA text should also be clear and very descriptive to encourage conversions.
Favor links in a piece of content: it’s highly contextual and has more weight than a generic anchor text or a footer or sidebar link that can be found across the website.
According to Google’s John Mueller: a link’s position in a page is irrelevant. However, SEOs tend to prefer links higher on a page.
It’s easier for search engines to “evaluate” links in text content vs. image anchors because oftentimes images do not come with clear, contextual ALT attributes.
Is there a perfect linking structure at the website level and the page level? The answer is no. A website can have a different linking structure in place depending on its nature (blog, e-commerce, publication, B2B website, etc.) and the information architecture choices made (the information architecture can lead to a pyramid type structure, or something resembling a nest, a cocoon, etc.).
Image SEO is a crucial part of SEO different types of websites. Blogs and e-commerce websites rely heavily on visual items to attract traffic to their website. Social discovery of content and shoppable media increase visits.
We won’t go into details regarding how to optimize your ALT attributes and file names as other articles do a fine job of it. However, let’s take a look at some of the main image formats we tend to use on the web (and that Google is able to crawl without any issues):
JPEG Best for photographs or designs with people, places or things.
PNG Best for images with transparent backgrounds.
GIF Best for animated GIFs, otherwise, use the JPG format.
The Lighter The Better: A Few Tips On Image Compression
Google prefers lighter images. The lighter, the better. However, you may have a hidden problem dragging you down: your CMS. You may upload one image, but your CMS could be creating many more. For example, WordPress will often create 3 to 5 variations of each image in different sizes. This means that images can quickly impact your performance. The best way to deal with this is to compress your images.
Don’t Trust Google Page Speed (A Quick Compression Algorithm Primer)
Not sure if images are dragging your performance down? Take a page from your website, put it through the online optimizer and see what the results are! If you plan on using Google Page Speed Insights, you need to consider the fact that this tool uses one specific algorithm to analyze your images. Sometimes, your images are perfectly optimized with another algorithm that’s not detected by Google’s tool. This can lead to a false positive result telling you to optimize images that are already optimized.
Tools You Can Use
If you want to get started with image compression, you can go about three ways:
Start compressing images in photo editing tools (most of them have an “export for the web” type of feature).
Install a plugin or module that is compatible with your CMS to do the work for you. Shortpixel is a good one to use for WordPress. It is freemium so you can optimize for free up to a certain point and then upgrade if you need to compress more images. The best thing about it is that it keeps a backup just in case you want to revert your changes. You can use a service like EWWWW or Short Pixel.
Use an API or a script to compress images for you. Kraken.io offers a solid API to get the job done. You can use a service like Image Optim or Kraken.
Lossy vs. Lossless Image Compression
Image compression comes in two flavors: lossy and lossless. There is no magic wand for optimizing images. It depends on the algorithm you use to optimize each image.
Lossy doesn’t mean bad when it comes to images. JPEGS and GIFS are lossy image formats that we use all the time online. Unlike code, you can remove data from images without corrupting the entire file. Our eyes can put up with some data loss because we are sensitive to different colors in different ways. Oftentimes, a 50% compression applied to an image will decrease its file size by 90%. Going beyond that is not worth the image degradation risks as it would become noticeable to your visitors. When it comes to lossy image compression, it’s about finding a compromise between quality and size.
Lossless image compression focuses on removing metadata from JPEG and PNG files. This means that you will have to look into other ways to optimize your load time as images will always be heavier than those optimized with a lossy compression.
Banners With Text In It
Ever open Pinterest? You will see a wall of images with text in it. The reality for many of us in SEO is that Google bot can’t read all about how to “Crack chicken noodle soup” or what Disney couple you are most like. Google can read image file names and image ALT text. So it’s crucial to think about this when designing marketing banners that include text. Always make sure your image file name and image ALT attribute are optimized to give Google a clue as to what is written on the image. If possible, favor image content with a text overlay available in the code. That way, Google will be able to read it!
Here is a quick checklist to help you optimize your image ALT attributes:
ALT attributes shouldn’t be too long: aim for 12 words or less.
ALT attributes should describe the image itself, not the content it is surrounded by (if your picture is of a palm tree, do not title it “the top 10 beaches to visit”).
ALT attributes should be in the proper language. Here is a concrete example: if a page is written in French, do not provide an English ALT attribute for the image in it.
ALT attributes can be written like regular sentences. No need to separate the words by dashes, you can use spaces.
ALT attributes should be descriptive in a human-friendly way. They are not made to contain a series of keywords separated by commas!
Google Lens is available on Android phones and rolling out to iOS. It is a nifty little addition because it can interpret many images the way a human would. It can read text embedded in images, can recognize landmarks, books, movies and scan barcodes (which most humans can’t do!).
Of course, the technology is so recent that we cannot expect it to be perfect. Some things need to be improved such as interpreting scribbled notes. Google Lens represents a potential bridge between the offline world and the online design experience we craft. AI technology and big data are leveraged to provide meaningful context to images. In the future, taking a picture of a storefront could be contextualized with information like the name of the store, reviews, and ratings for example. Or you could finally figure out the name of a dish that you are eating (I personally tested this and Google figured out I was eating a donburi).
Here is my prediction for the long term: Google Lens will mean less stock photography in websites and more unique images to help brands. Imagine taking a picture of a pair of shoes and knowing exactly where to buy them online because Google Lens identified the brand and model along with a link to let you buy them in a few clicks?
Google has put into place new design penalties that influence a website’s mobile ranking on its results pages. If you want to know more about it, you can read an in-depth article on the topic. Bottom line: avoid unsolicited interstitials on mobile landing pages that are indexed in Google.
SEOs do have guidelines, but we do not have the visual creativity to provide tasteful solutions to comply with Google’s standards.
Essentially, marketers have long relied on interstitials as promotional tools to help them engage and convert visitors. An interstitial can be defined as something that blocks out the website’s main content. If your pop-ups cover the main content shown on a mobile screen, if it appears without user interaction, chances are that they may trigger an algorithmic penalty.
As a gentle reminder, this is what would be considered an intrusive interstitial by Google if it were to appear on mobile:
Tips How To Avoid A Penalty
No slide ins;
No interstitials that take up more than 20% of the screen;
Replace them with non intrusive ribbons at the top or bottom of your pages;
Or opt for inline optin boxes that are in the middle or at the end of your pages.
Here’s a solution that may be a bit over the top (with technically two banners on one screen) but that still stays within official guidelines:
Some People May Never See Your Design
More and more, people are turning to vocal search when looking for information on the web. Over 55% of teens and 41% of adults use voice search. The surprising thing is that this pervasive phenomenon is very recent: most people started in the last year or so.
Users request information from search engines in a conversational manner — keywords be damned! This adds a layer of complexity to designing a website: tailoring an experience for users who may not ever enjoy the visual aspect of a website. For example, Google Home can “read” out loud recipes or provide information straight from position 0 snippets when a request is made. This is a new spin on an old concept. If I were to ask Google Home to give me the definition of web accessibility, it would probably read the following thing out loud to me from Wikipedia:
This is an extension of accessibility after all. This time around though, it means that a majority of users will come to rely on accessibility to reach informative content.
Designing for voice search means prioritizing your design to be heard instead of seen. For those interested in extending the design all the way to the code should look into the impact rich snippets have on how your data is structured and given visibility in search engine results pages.
Design And UX Impact SEO
Here is a quick cheat sheet for this article. It contains concrete things you can do to improve your SEO with UX and design:
Google will start ranking websites based on their mobile experience. Review the usability of your mobile version to ensure you’re ready for the coming changes in Google.
Check the content organization of your pages. H1, H2, and H3 tags should help create a path through the content that the bot can follow.
Keyword strategy takes a UX approach to get to the core of users’ search intents to craft optimized content that ranks well.
Internal linking matters: the links you have on your website are signaling to search engines bots which pages you find more valuable over others on your website.
Give images more visibility: optimize file names, ALT attributes and think about how the bot “reads” your images.
Mobile penalties now include pop-ups, banners and other types of interstitials. If you want to keep ranking well in Google mobile search results, avoid unsolicited interstitials on your landing pages.
With the rise of assistants like Google Home and Alexa, designing for voice search could become a reality soon. This will mean prioritizing your design to be heard instead of seen.
Webster’s Dictionary defines a ‘conference’ as, “An event at which industry professionals talk at other industry professionals who’ve stockpiled seven complimentary croissants in their bag to eat later. See also:Room temperature orange juice.”
Whether it’s to learn some new tricks, make some new connections or drum up some new business, conferences are a necessary (and sometimes cool) part of being a marketer—but not all of them are worth your time. While your typical marketing conference has morphed from weak coffee and dry PowerPoints to free t-shirts and celebrity thought leaders, it can be tough to leave feeling like you’ve really gotten something out of the event.
We saw a need to change the conference experience. Because the experience of being a marketer has changed.
Marketing now is harder than ever— it’s hyper-competitive, oversaturated and comprised of tired tactics that used to work. We need new solutions to old problems and actionable solutions to new problems. Especially when we’re forking out hundreds, or even thousands, of dollars on a conference ticket (money we could’ve sacrificed to the AdWords gods).
“CTAConf has set the bar for what a marketing event should be: fun, engaging and insightful. No matter the experience level or skill set, every attendee left with a new set of philosophies and tactics to apply in their marketing practice”
— Ray Silva, Strategy Lead at Apply Digital and CTAConf 2017 attendee.
Now in its fifth year (only 55 more ’til we get that diamond!), CTAConf 2018 is going to be more exciting, more targeted and more committed to your future success than ever.
Already sold on joining us? Get 10% off Early Bird tickets by using the promo code “CTAConfRevolution” at checkout.
Why this conference is different (we promise)
CTAConf merges carefully curated, usable content with…well, having a great time. It’s single track, allergic to fluff and ensures you’ll walk away with leading-edge tactics, all wrapped up in an amazing experience you’ll truly enjoy.
We’re talking hands-on workshops, a concert atmosphere, all-you-can-eat snacks and gourmet food trucks, organic networking, a genuinely friendly team and fun parties in the beautiful setting of Vancouver, B.C. (Credit to Mother Nature for that one.)
Even the sessions themselves, held in the historic and fully immersive Queen Elizabeth Theatre, will make you feel less like you’re at a “work event” and more like you’re at a Broadway show about email marketing called Don’t Spamalot.
Most importantly, it’s designed to deliver practical know-how and future-proofing strategies from true experts covering every facet of digital marketing.
A glimpse at who’s talking and what you’ll learn
April Dunford, Wind at Your Back: Making your Market Category Work for You
April has spent her career launching innovative tech products and is a seasoned expert at getting traction in increasingly noisy markets. Prior to founding Rocket Launch Marketing, where she works with companies on market strategy and positioning, she was VP of Marketing at a series of successful high-growth startups and an executive at global companies including IBM, Nortel and Siebel Systems. She was also the top-rated speaker at last year’s CTAConf (she happens to be equal parts genius and hilarious).
In her talk, you’ll learn :
How to shift to a favourable market category to give your marketing programs added velocity
How to completely change the way customers think about your offering to remove friction in your funnel
The three steps for shifting market categories, from isolating your differentiators to finding your downstream customers and picking the best market current to ride
Rob Bucci, What Google Serves Up For Local Searches
Rob is the founder and CEO of STAT Search Analytics, a rank tracking and SERP analytics service for SEO experts. A developer and entrepreneur in the SEO space since 2005, Rob especially loves tackling big-data challenges in data mining and analytics.
He’ll be bringing his SEO expertise to the stage to teach us:
How Google interprets different levels of local intent and what searchers are seeing most often
How to refine your SEO keyword lists by comparing SERPs
How to better tailor your content to build more targeted ad campaigns that achieve better results
Hana Abaza, Product Marketing: Inside and Out
Hana is the Head of Marketing for Shopify Plus, a division of Shopify that powers some of the world’s fastest growing and most iconic brands (Rebecca Minkoff, Nestle, The New York Times and FAO Schwartz, to name a few). Prior to joining Shopify, Hana led marketing and growth in a variety of industries and has a proven track record for scaling teams, revenue and customers.
You’ll leave her talk knowing:
The guidelines for how and when to invest in product marketing
How to develop a go-to-market framework for your company
How to set up product marketing as a cross-functional powerhouse
Ross Simmonds, Beyond Google: How To Attract Relevant Traffic Through Diverse Channels
Ross is the founder of Foundation Marketing and creator and co-founder of content curation tool, Crate, and Hustle & Grind, an online store for entrepreneurs.
Over the last several years, he’s worked to help some of the fastest-growing startups and a variety of Fortune 500 brands succeed in their digital marketing efforts. His talk focuses on typically under-used and ignored channels as missed opportunities for quality traffic.
During his talk, you’ll learn:
What brands can do to spread their story beyond SEO & SEM
How brands can leverage communities and other networks to drive consistent traffic
Research and data on the importance of diverse channels
Examples of what happens when you embrace a more diverse content approach
Krista Seiden, Measurement for Growth
Currently a Product Manager and Analytics Evangelist for the Google Analytics team, Krista is a leader in the digital analytics industry and co-chair for the San Francisco chapter of the Digital Analytics Association. She has nearly a decade of experience in digital marketing, analytics, and product management, having led analytics and optimization at Adobe and The Apollo Group prior to joining Google.
Her talk will cover:
What growth marketing really is, beyond the buzzwords
How effective growth marketing is rooted in analytics, experimentation, and product development
How to strategically measure and use data for targeted growth
Cyrus Shepard, SEO Success: The One Engagement Metric to Rule Them All
Former Head of SEO and Content Development at Moz, Cyrus now runs Zyppy, a fast-growing SEO company. When he’s not consulting with companies big and small on how to improve their rankings, traffic and profits, he travels the world as a speaker, making complex SEO equations easy to understand.
This August Cyrus will take the stage to teach us:
How much speed and rankings matter and steps to improve the right areas
What “fuzzy” engagement metrics like bounce rate, time on site, pages per visit really mean and what you need to focus on
How to use SEO data to improve conversions
Oli Gardner, Content Marketing is Broken and Only Your M.O.M. Can Save You
Oli is not only an Unbounce co-founder, he’s an expert and international speaker on conversion optimization, data-driven design and landing pages (he claims to have seen more landing pages than anyone on the planet).
He’s often the highest-rated speaker at events around the world, including previous Call to Action Conferences. This year, he’ll be talking:
Data and lessons learned from his biggest ever content marketing experiment, and how those lessons have changed his approach to content
A context-to-content-to-conversion strategy for big content that converts, based on designing for your customer’s “aha!” moments
Advanced methods for creating “choose your own adventure” navigational experiences to build event-based behavioural profiles of your visitors
Innovative ways to productize and market the technology you already have, with use cases your customers had never considered
What’s happening off stage
Learn by doing with Unbounce workshops
Get your hands proverbially dirty with interactive workshops on A/B testing, landing page optimization, PPC, analytics and mastering Unbounce for more conversions across every type of digital campaign. A full-day event prior to the conference, the workshops are a chance to work directly with seasoned pros on solutions to real marketing problems. Workshops have been so popular in previous years they were standing room only.
Make your first (or hundredth!) landing page, popup or sticky bar with us at the workshops, and learn all the insider tips you can take home to your team.
Eat to your stomach’s content, on us
When we say free food, we don’t mean “Enjoy these sweaty muffins! If you want lunch, there’s a Chipotle two blocks away.” We mean constantly replenished drinks, foodie-approved snacks and a lunchtime convoy of the city’s finest food trucks delivering everything from truly tasty salads to life-changing mac ‘n’ cheese. All included.
Meet, connect and party with great people
Call to Action Conference hovers around 1,200 attendees for a refreshingly intimate experience with the buzzing energy of a big-time event. Meet fellow passionate marketers from cities all over the world, mingle with industry leaders and see just how stereotypically Canadian the friendly Unbounce crew is.
“CTAConf was amazing! My favourite part? The caliber of attendees and the energy they brought. Met so many remarkable marketers!”
—Jes Kirkwood, Head of Content Marketing at ProsperWorks and 2017 attendee.
Soak up Vancouver at the best time of year
Business and pleasure do mix! Especially in summer. CTAConf 2018 is happening August 27-29, smack dab in the middle of Vancouver’s sunshine season. Take a seawall stroll between sessions, taste-test your way through a diverse food scene, hone your craft beer palate at one of many world-renowned breweries or tack on an extra day and get outside the city to those calling mountains. We turn into human prunes waiting out months of rain for a Vancouver summer and it’s totally worth it. Come see for yourself.
Enjoy champagne hotels at boxed-wine prices
We’ve secured 40-50% discounts on rooms at the Four Seasons Hotel Vancouver, Fairmont Hotel Vancouver and Delta Hotels Vancouver Downtown Suites, exclusive to CTAConf 2018 attendees and just steps away from the conference venue. Rooms are at first come, first serve and book up fast so grab yours ASAP and prepare your senses for the fluffiest of robes.
Join the revolution
Call to Action Conference 2018 is coming up fast and early bird prices are ending soon. Get your single, group or customer ticket before May 31, 2018 and come hold us to our promise. You’ll leave feeling inspired, energized and ready for marketing victory with tactics and strategies you can put into action the very next day. In other words, you’ll really get something out of this.
Don’t forget to sweeten that Early Bird deal. Use the promo code “CTAConfRevolution” at checkout to get 10% off all ticket rates. See you in August!
P.S. If you’re joining us from the United States, you’re in luck. Ticket prices are in Canadian dollars. Your boss basically can’t say no (and if you happen to be the boss, you can take your whole team). You’re welcome, eh.
MDN Web Docs has been documenting the web platform for over twelve years and is now a cross-platform effort with contributions and an Advisory Board with members from Google, Microsoft and Samsung as well as those representing Firefox. Something that is fundamental to MDN is that it is a huge community effort, with the web community helping to create and maintain the documentation. In this article, I’m going to give you some pointers as to the places where you can help contribute to MDN and exactly how to do so.
If you haven’t contributed to an open source project before, MDN is a brilliant place to start. Skills needed range from copyediting, translating from English to other languages, HTML and CSS skills for creating Interactive Examples, or an interest in browser compatibility for updating Browser Compatibility data. What you don’t need to do is to write a whole lot of code to contribute. It’s very straightforward, and an excellent way to give back to the community if you have ever found these docs useful.
Contributing To The Documentation Pages
To start editing, you need to log in using GitHub. As is usual with a wiki, any editors of a page are listed, and this section will use your GitHub username. If you look at any of the pages on MDN contributors are listed at the bottom of the page, the below image shows the current contributors to the page on CSS Grid Layout.
What Might You Edit?
Things that you might consider as an editor are fixing obvious typos and grammatical errors. If you are a good proofreader and copyeditor, then you may well be able to improve the readability of the docs by fixing any spelling or other errors that you spot.
You might also spot a technical error, or somewhere the specs have changed and where an update or clarification would be useful. With the huge range of web platform features covered by MDN and the rate of change, it is very easy for things to get out of date, if you spot something – fix it!
You may be able to use some specific knowledge you have to add additional information. For example, Eric Bailey has been adding Accessibility Concerns sections to many pages. This is a brilliant effort to highlight the things we should be thinking about when using a certain thing.
Another place you could add to a page is in adding “See also” links. These could be links to other parts of MDN, or to external resources. When adding external resources, these should be highly relevant to the property, element or technique being described by that document. A good candidate would be a tutorial which demonstrates how to use that feature, something which would give a reader searching for information a valuable next step.
How To Edit A Document?
Once you are logged in you will see a link to Edit on pages in MDN, clicking this will take you into a WYSIWYG editor for editing content. Your first few edits are likely to be small changes, in which case you should be able to follow your nose and edit the text. If you are making extensive edits, then it would be worth taking a look at the style guide first. There is also a guide to using the WYSIWYG Editor.
After making your edit, you can Preview and then Publish. Before publishing it is a good idea to explain what you added and why using the Revision Comment field.
Those of us with English as a first language are incredibly fortunate when it comes to information on the web, being able to get pretty much all of the information that we could ever want in our own language. If you are able to translate English language pages into other languages, then you can help to translate MDN Web Docs, making all of this information available to more people.
If you click on the language icon on any page, you can see which languages that information has been translated into, and you can add your own translations following the information on the page Translating MDN Pages.
The Interactive Examples on MDN, are the examples that you will see at the top of many pages of MDN, such as this one for the grid-area property.
The content for these Interactive Examples is held in the Interactive Examples GitHub repository. For example, if you wanted to locate the example for grid-area, you would find it in that repo under live-examples/css-examples/grid. Under that folder, you will find two files for grid-area, an HTML and a CSS file.
An Interactive Example is just a small demo, which uses some standard classes and IDs in order that the framework can pick up the example and make it interactive, where the values can be changed by a visitor to the page who wants to quickly see how it works. To add or edit an Interactive Example, first fork the Interactive Examples repo, clone it to your machine and follow the instructions on the Contributing page to install the required packages from npm and be able to build and test examples locally.
Then create a branch and edit or create your new example. Once you are happy with it, send a Pull Request to the Interactive Examples repo to ask for your example to be reviewed. In order to keep the examples consistent, reviews are fairly nitpicky but should point out the changes you need to make in a clear way, so you can update your example and have it approved, merged and added to an MDN page.
The Interactive Examples are incredibly useful for people exploring the web platform, so adding to the project is an excellent way to contribute. Contributing to CSS or HTML examples requires knowledge of CSS and HTML, plus the ability to think up a clear demonstration. This last point is often the hardest part, I’ve created a lot of CSS Interactive Examples and spent more time thinking up the best example for each property than I do actually writing the code.
Browser Compat Data
Fairly recently the browser compatibility data listed on MDN Pages has begun to be updated through the Browser Compatibility Project. This project is developing browser compat data in JSON format, which can display the compatibility tables on MDN but also be useful data for other purposes.
The Browser Compatibility Data is on GitHub, and if you find a page that has incorrect information or is still using the old tables, you can submit a Pull Request. The repository contains contribution information, however, the simplest way to start is to edit an existing example. I recently updated the information for the CSS shape-outside property. The property already had some data in the new format, but it was incomplete and incorrect.
To edit this data, I first forked the Browser Compat Data so that I had my own fork. I then cloned that to my machine and created a new branch to make my changes in.
Once I had my new branch, I found the JSON file for shape-outside and was able to make my edits. I already had a good idea about browser support for the property; I also used the live example on the shape-outside MDN page to test to see support when I wasn’t sure. Therefore making the edits was a case of working through the file, checking the version numbers listed for support of the property and updating those which were incorrect.
As the file is in JSON format is pretty straightforward to edit in any text editor. The .editorconfig file explains the simple formatting rules for these documents. There are also some helpful tips in this checklist.
Once you have made your edits, you can commit your changes, push your branch to your fork and then make a Pull Request to the Browser Compat Data repository. It’s likely that, as with the live examples, the reviewer will have some changes for you to make. In my PR for the Shapes data I had a few errors in how I had flagged the data and needed to make some changes to links. These were simple to make, and then my PR was merged.
You can get started simply by picking something to add to and starting work on it in many cases. If you have any questions or need some help with any of this, then the MDN Discourse forum is a good place to post. MDN is the place I go to look up information, the place I send new developers and experienced developers alike, and its strength is the fact that we can all work to make it better.
If you have never made a Pull Request on a project before, it is a very friendly place to make that first PR and, as I hope I have shown, there are ways to contribute that don’t require writing any code at all. A very valuable skill for any documentation project is that of writing, editing and translating as these skills can help to make technical documentation easier to read and accessible to more people around the world.
Note: This is a guest article written by Brett Thoreson , the CEO at CartStack. Any and all opinions expressed in the post are Brett’s.
When selling online, cart abandonment is a fact of ecommerce life. Humans have a limited attention span (just 8 seconds long), as we are filled with deliberation, choices, distractions, and doubts. However, there are lots of tools out there to help you minimize cart abandonment, but we can’t eradicate it completely.
However, all is not lost. Customers who have abandoned their carts can still be reengaged. And we’re here to help you with top conversion rate optimization tips that will turn those faltering customers into paying ones.
Cart abandonment is when someone visits your website, adds items to their baskets, but for one reason or another, fails to finalize the purchase and leaves the transaction incomplete.
Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is a set of practices that helps you to convert visitors into paying customers and avoid, or turn around, cart abandonment.
Two impactful CRO practices that help with cart abandonment avoidance are:
Cart abandonment software: Software that tracks a visitor’s journey on your website to: capture emails and track shoppers while they are on your site, watch for them to abandon a cart, and email them following their abandonment, enticing them back.
A/B split testing: Running two versions of your website or page that are identical in intent (such as the checkout page) but different in style, allowing you to compare and contrast conversion rates between the two.
Power of Cart Abandonment Software and A/B Testing on Customer Conversions
Alone, these tools are impactful but together they can work in conjunction to produce much powerful results that will make your conversion rates soar and here’s how:
Cart abandonment software relies on shoppers (website visitors) entering their email addresses on your website form, while A/B testing provides you with the insight to optimize your website to ensure that shoppers (website visitors) input their email addresses.
Simply put, A/B testing converts visitors into leads and cart abandonment software converts leads into paying customers.
How to Use A/B Testing and Cart Abandonment Software to Get Email Addresses
There are lot of CRO tips for use when you are A/B testing to see what changes result in increased email conversions. We’ve put together our favorite tips here:
Where you ask people for their email address, is hugely important and impactful. You can have a banner asking people to sign up. It can be part of a registration form, or you can use your cart abandonment software to produce exit intent pop-ups (displayed when visitors look as if they are about to leave). It is estimated that 35% of lost shoppers can be saved by using exit intent pop-ups, but test this for yourself to see if this is true for your customers.
Visual tracking research shows that we browse websites following an F-shaped pattern, favoring the top and left-hand sides. Test your email address opt-ins at both these instances to see which captures more attention.
Color and Font
Choosing the right color and font optimization for your call-to-action button is imperative. We’ll discuss color in a little more detail below. Testing background colors and contrasting text that can make your banner stand out, easy to read, and compelling to complete is a significant use of split testing.
Lead magnets offer your customers something valuable in exchange of their email addresses. It can be a downloadable guide on this season’s fashions or a report on the top-rated headphones of the year. Test whether lead magnets work or not; and if they do, test many types. Opt-ins of this nature can see up to a 10% conversion rate.
As mentioned earlier, humans are easily distracted not only by outside sources but also by items on your website. For a particular VWO customer, removing the navigation menu resulted in a 100% increase in conversions. Try removing your navigation menu from the form page, to reduce distraction, and removing the option to leave the form, and see if these increase your conversions.
Over 70% of online shoppers abandon their cart halfway through the checkout process, meaning that they are also halfway through filling out your form. Some cart abandonment software applications capture email addresses in real time, even if the visitor doesn’t hit Submit. Therefore, test moving the email address field higher up on your shopping cart and checkout pages, to capture the email address before the visitors abandon the page so that you can send them a follow-up email reminder.
Words are powerful and emotive: They can make people comply, offer, or turn away. Consider how you are asking for shopper’s email addresses and then test different methods, such as explaining why, using personable language, emotive words, or by using less number of words.
Do visitors respond better to form fields that are pre-populated with example text (such as email@example.com), blank fields, or fields compatible with Google Autocomplete. Understanding what makes your form easiest to complete should help enable you to tailor it accordingly.
Exit Intent Pop-Up Changes
A pop-up needs to grab visitor attention, and the best way to do this is with color. Split test different colors that contrast with your website brand colors and “pop out.” You may also want take into account well-known color connotations, which differ across countries, cultures, and genders, such as:
While you can’t adapt your website for everyone, you can adapt it to your customer base by seeing what works best for them.
A great A/B testing idea can be of using different offers to see which offers appeal to your customers more. Research shows trends such as 90% of online shoppers being influenced by the cost of delivery and discount days such as Black Friday, leading to billions of dollars worth of online sales. Test percentage discounts, free delivery, and money off to see what works best for your target audience.
Your exit intent pop-up wording is crucial. When issuing a pop-up window, you are walking a fine line between frustrating and enticing your customer. If you are interrupting them, test your wording to make sure it demonstrates a good reason.
Another useful test for pop-up windows is to include the email address field in the exit intent pop-up itself. This will enable you to capture user email addresses in real time before they exit the pop-up screen.
Size matters when designing your exit intent pop-up screen. Should it take up the whole page or just the center? Should it be easy to click or difficult?
A/B split testing is a great way to increase your email address conversion rates. It can be then directly used to fuel your cart abandonment software, with the ultimate aim of re-engaging customers who have abandoned their shopping carts.
There are many other tests that you can try for capturing email addresses before cart abandonment occurs. However, the following 12 are our favorites, because they work. Increasing the number of email addresses you capture before cart abandonment and using these addresses in your follow-up cart abandonment email campaign, you can convert over 20% of lost online sales.