Hila Qu, Vice President of Growth at Acorns, has a theory. She says there are two kinds of product managers:…Read blog postabout:Experimentation in product development: How you can maximize the customer experience
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Hila Qu, Vice President of Growth at Acorns, has a theory. She says there are two kinds of product managers:…Read blog postabout:Experimentation in product development: How you can maximize the customer experience
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Live chat and chatbots are gaining popularity. And there is a good reason for that: modern businesses continue to look for innovative way to improve their customers’ experience while they search for answers to their queries in real time. While some have opted for live chat, others prefer a chatbot. But the intent remains the same: improving customer service. Which of these options is better suited for your business? Both have their distinct pros and cons. Although a human-powered, live support software is a common element on most websites these days, there has a been a lot of noise about…
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Your best customers don’t just buy one product or use your service once. They come back again and again for more. Customer retention increases your customers’ lifetime value and boosts your revenue. It also helps you build amazing relationships with your customers. You aren’t just another website or store. They trust you with their money because you give them value in exchange. What what does customer retention mean? And how can you achieve customer retention through relationship-building strategies? Let’s explore these concepts in depth and look at a few examples that you can apply to your own business. What is…
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You’re unhappy with your conversion rate. People just aren’t buying what you’re selling. The solution might lie in tripwire marketing. The term tripwire marketing might sound a little shady, like you’re trying to get one over on your customer. That’s not the case at all. Marketing and advertising experts have been using tripwire marketing for decades in one form or another, and it works just as well online as it does in brick-and-mortar stores. In fact, it’s even more effective because you can more easily stay in touch with the customer. What is tripwire marketing? And how does it work?…
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The average company used 16 SaaS apps in 2017. That’s a 33 percent increase from the year before. That doesn’t mean your SaaS business will flourish, though. If you want your piece of an industry that’s worth an estimated 116 billion globally, optimizing your SaaS conversion funnel most become a priority. Your conversion funnel describes the steps your prospective customers take to reach a buying decision. Narrowing the conversion funnel and pushing prospects through faster can result in higher profits. Do to so, you must learn how to nurture your leads and prospects. Let’s look at some of the most…
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As designers, we know that research should play a pivotal role in any design process. Sadly, however, there are still a lot of organizations that do not see the value of research and would rather jump straight into the visual design stage of the design process.
The excuses given here tend to be:
“We already know what our customers want.”
“We don’t have the time/budget/people.”
“We’ll figure out the flaws in BETA.”
As designers, it is important that we are equipped to be able to have conversations with senior stakeholders to be able to sell and justify the importance of the so-called “Design Discovery” within the design process.
In this article, I’ll demystify what is meant by the term “Design Discovery” to help you better establish the importance of research within the creative process. I’ll also be giving advice on how to handle common pushbacks, along with providing various hints and tips on how to select the best research methods when undertaking user research.
My hope is that by reading this article, you will become comfortable with being able to sell “Design Discovery” as part of the creative process. You will know how to build a “Discovery Plan” of activities that answers all the questions you and your client need to initiate the design process with a clear purpose and direction.
Digital design is not just about opening up Photoshop or Sketch and adding colors, shapes, textures, and animation to make a beautiful looking website or app.
As designers, before putting any pixels on canvas, we should have a solid understanding of:
Ask yourself, is the purpose of what you are producing? Is it to help users:
Understanding the answers to these questions should inform your design decisions. But before we design, we need to do some research.
Any design process worth its salt should start with a period of research, which (in agency terms) is often referred to as a “Discovery Phase”. The time and budget designers can allocate to a Discovery phase is determined by many factors such as the amount of the client’s existing project research and documentation as well as the client’s budget. Not to mention your own personal context, which we will come to later.
In a Discovery phase, we should ensure adequate time is dedicated to exploring both business and user goals.
Yes, we design experiences for users, but ultimately we produce our designs for clients (be that internal or external), too. Clients are the gatekeepers to what we design. They have the ultimate say over the project and they are the ones that hold the purse strings. Clients will have their own goals they want to achieve from a project and these do not always align with the users’ goals.
In order to ensure what we design throughout our design process hits the sweet spot, we need to make sure that we are spending time exploring both the business and user goals for the project (in the Research/Discovery phase).
Typically, the quickest way to establish the business goals for a project is to host a stakeholder workshop with key project stakeholders. Your aim should be to get as many representatives from across different business functions as possible into one room to discuss the vision for the project (Marketing, Finance, Digital, Customer Services, and Sales).
Tip: Large organizations often tend to operate in organizational silos. This allows teams to focus on their core function such as marketing, customer care, etc. It allows staff to be effective without being distracted by activities where they have no knowledge and little or no skills. However, it often becomes a problem when the teams don’t have a singular vision/mission from leadership, and they begin to see their area as the driving force behind the company’s success. Often in these situations, cross-departmental communication can be poor to non-existent. By bringing different members from across the organization together in one room, you get to the source of the truth quicker and can link together internal business processes and ways of working.
The core purpose of the stakeholder workshop should be:
There are a series of activities that you can employ within your stakeholder workshop. I tend to typically build a full workshop day (7-8 hours) around 4-5 activities allowing 45mins uptil 1 hour for lunch and two 15-min coffee breaks between exercises. Any more that than, and I find energy levels start to dwindle.
I will vary the workshop activities I do around the nature of the project. However, each workshop I lead tends to include the following three core activities:
|Business Model Canvas||To explore the organizations business model and discuss where this project fits this model.|
|Measurement Plan||Define what are the most important business metrics the business wants to be able to measure and report on.|
|Proto Personas and User Stories||Explore who the business feels their users are and what are the key user stories we need to deliver against.|
Tip: If you’re new to delivering client workshops, I’ve added a list of recommended reading to the references section at the bottom of this article which will give you useful ideas on workshop activities, materials, and group sizes.
Following the workshop, you’ll need to produce a write up of what happened in the workshop itself. It also helps to take lots of photos on the workshop day. The purpose of the write-up should be to not only explain the purpose of the day and key findings, but also recommendations of next steps. Write-ups can be especially helpful for internal communication within the organization and bringing non-attendees up to speed with what happened on the day as well as agreeing on the next steps for the project.
Of course, Discovery is not just about understanding what the organization wants. We need to validate what users actually want and need.
With the business goals defined, you can then move on to explore the user goals through conducting some user research. There are many different user research methods you can employ throughout the Discovery process from Customer Interviews and Heuristic Evaluations to Usability Tests and Competitor Reviews, and more.
Having a clear idea of the questions you are looking to answer and available budget is the key to helping select the right research methods. It is, for this reason, important that you have a good idea of what these are before you get to this point.
Before you start to select which are the best user research methods to employ, step back and ask yourself the following question:
“What are the questions I/we as a design team need answers to?”
For example, do you want to understand:
Grab a pen and write down what you want to achieve from your research in a list.
Tip: If you know you are going to be working on a fixed/tight budget, it is important to get confirmation on what that budget may look like at this point since this will have some bearing on the research methods you choose.
Another tip: User research does not have to happen after organizational research. I always find it helps to do some exploratory research prior to running stakeholder workshops. This ensures you go into the room with a baseline understanding of the organization its users and some common pain points. Some customers may not know what users do on their websites/apps nowadays; I like to go in prepared with some research to hand whether that be User Testing, Analytics Review or Tree Testing outputs.
The map below from the Nielsen Norman Group (NNG) shows an overview of 20 popular user research methods plotted on a 3-dimensional framework. It can provide a useful guide for helping you narrow down on a set of research methods to use.
The diagram may look complicated, but let us break down some key terms.
Along the x-axis, research methods are separated by the types of data they produce.
Quantitative data involves numbers and figures. It is great for answering questions such as:
Qualitative data involves quote, observations, photos, videos, and notes.
Along the y-axis, research methods are separated by the user inputs.
Finally, research methods are also classified by their context. Context explains the nature of the research, some research methods such as interviews require no product at all. Meanwhile, usability tests require users to complete scripted tasks and tell us how they think and feel.
Using your question list, firstly identify whether you are looking to understand users opinions (what people say) or actions (what people do) and secondly whether you are looking to understand why they behave in a certain way (why and how to fix) or how many of them are behaving in a certain way (how many and how much).
Now look at this simplified version of the matrix, and you should be able to work out which user research methods to focus in on.
If you’re looking to understand users’ attitudes and beliefs and you don’t have a working product then ‘Focus Groups’ or ‘Interviews’ would be suitable user research methods.
If you want to understand how many users are interacting with the current website or app then an ‘Analytics Review’ would be the right research method to adopt. Meanwhile, if you want to test how many people will be impacted by a change, A/B testing would be a suitable method.
By now you should realize there is no shortcut to the research process; not one single UX research method will provide all the answers you need for a project.
Analytics reviews, for example, are a great low-cost way to explore behavioral, quantitative data about how users interact with an existing website or application.
However, this data falls short of telling you:
These types of questions are best answered by other research methods such as ‘Customer Feedback’ surveys (also known as ‘Intercept Surveys’) which are available from tools such as Hotjar, Usabilla, and Qualaroo.
In order to build a holistic view of the user experience, the Research/Discovery process should typically last around 3 to 4 weeks and combine a combination of the different research methods.
Use your list of questions and the NNG matrix to help you decide on the most suitable research methods for your project. Wherever possible, try to use complimentary research methods to build a bigger picture of users motivations, drivers, and behaviors.
Tip: The UX Recipe tool is a great website for helping you pull together the different research methods you feel you need for a project and to calculate the cost of doing so.
Which brings me on to my next point.
The time and budget which you can allocate to Discovery will vary greatly depending on your role. Are you working in-house, freelance, or in an agency? Some typical scenarios are as follows:
As you can see from the above, selling Design Discovery can be a challenge depending on your context. It’s much harder to sell Design Discovery when working as a freelancer than it is working within an agency.
Some of the most commons excuses organizations put forward for discounting the research process are:
“We don’t have the budget.”
“We’ll find it out in BETA.”
“We don’t have time.”
“We already know what users want.”
When selling Design Discovery and combating these points of view, remember these key things:
Research does not have to be costly especially with all of the tools and resources we have available today. You can conduct a Guerilla User Testing session for the price of a basic coffee. Furthermore, you can often source willing participants from website intercepts, forums or social media groups who are more than willing to help.
The findings that come as an output from research can be invaluable. It is much more cost and time effective to spend some of the project budgets up front to ensure there are no assumptions and blind spots than it is to course correct later on if the project has shifted off tangent. Uncovering blockers or significant pain points later into the project can be a huge drain on time as well as monetary resources.
Within large organizations especially, a view of ‘what users want’ is often shaped by senior managers’ thoughts and opinions rather than any applied user research. These viewpoints then cascade down to more junior members of the team who start to adopt the same viewpoints. Validating these opinions are actually correct viewpoints is essential.
Furthermore, a Discovery process also brings with it internal benefits. By bringing members from other business functions together and setting a clear direction for the project, you should win advocates for the project across many business functions. Everyone should leave the room with a clear understanding of what the project is, its vision, and the problems you are trying to fix. This helps to alleviate an enormous amount of uncertainty within the organization.
I like to best explain the purpose of the discovery phase by using my adaptation of the Design Squiggle by Damien Newman:
See how the Discovery phase allows us time to tackle the most uncertainty?
A Discovery phase can be integrated into both Waterfall and Agile project management methodologies.
In Waterfall projects, the Discovery phase happens at the very start of the project and can typically run for 4 to 12 weeks depending on the size of the project, the number of interdependent systems, and the areas which need to be explored.
In Agile projects, you may run a Discovery phase upfront to outline the purpose for the project and interconnect systems along with mini 1 to 2-week discovery process at the start of each sprint to gather the information you need to build out a feature.
The next time you start on any digital project:
Make sure you allow time for a Discovery phase at the start of your project to define both business and user goals, and to set a clear vision that sets a clear purpose and direction for the project to all stakeholders.
Be sure to run a Stakeholder workshop with representatives from a variety of different business functions across the business (Marketing, Finance, Digital, Customer Services, Sales).
Before selecting which user research methods to use on your project, write down a list of questions you wish to understand and get a budget defined. From there, you can use the NNG matrix to help you understand what the best tool to use is.
If you found this article interesting, here is some recommended further reading:
If you are interested in running Stakeholder workshops, I’d highly recommend reading the following books. Not only will they give you useful hints and tips on how to run workshops, they’re packed full of different workshop exercises to help you get answers to specific questions.
Totally. Within the Education or the People pillar is the use of data and how much more important that is…Read blog postabout:The 5 pillars of digital transformation strategy at Mark’s: An interview with changemaker, Johnny Russo
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(This is a sponsored article.) As designers working primarily on screen, we often think of user experience design as being primarily a screen-focused activity. In fact, user experience affects the entirety of what we build and that often includes activities that are undertaken off-screen.
To design truly memorable experiences, we need to widen our frame of reference to include all of the brand touchpoints that our users come into contact with along their customer journey. Doing so has the potential to materially impact upon business outcomes, recognizing the role that design — and user experience — can play at the heart of a wider business strategy.
Whether you’re building a website or an application, at heart you are designing for users and, as such, it’s important to consider these users at the center of a customer-focused ecosystem. Great brands are more than just logos or marques, and websites or applications, they’re about the totality of the user experience, wherever a customer comes into contact with the brand.
This expanded design focus — considering touchpoints both on- and off-screen — becomes particularly important as our role as designers widens out to design the entirety of the experience considering multiple points of contact. It’s not uncommon for the websites and apps we build to be a part of a wider, design-focused ecosystem — and that’s where UX strategy comes in.
Over the last few years, we have seen designers move up the chain of command and, thankfully, we are starting to see designers occupy senior roles within organizations. The emergence of designers as part of the C-Suite in companies is a welcome development and, with it, we are seeing the emergence of CDOs, Chief Design Officers.
As James Pallister put it in “The Secrets of the Chief Design Officer,” an article exploring the CDO phenomenon written for the UK’s Design Council:
“As Apple’s valuation shot higher and higher in recent years, a flurry of major corporations — Philips, PepsiCo, Hyundai &mdahs; announced the appointments of Chief Design Officers to their boards.
This was no mere coincidence. Seeking to emulate the stellar success of design-led businesses like Apple, global companies are pouring investment into design.”
This investment in, and appreciation of, design has been long overdue and is beginning to impact upon our day-to-day role as designers.
Forward-thinking companies are elevating the role of designers within their hierarchies and, equally importantly, stressing the importance of design thinking as a core, strategic business driver. As a result, we are seeing design driving company-wide business innovation, creating better products and more engaged relationships with customers.
As this trend continues, giving designers a seat at the top table, it’s important to widen our scope and consider UX strategy in a holistic manner. In this article, the eighth in my ongoing series exploring user experience design, I’ll open the aperture a little to consider how design impacts beyond the world of screens as part of a wider strategy.
Before users come into contact with a website or an app, they will likely have been in contact with a brand in other ways — often off-screen. When considering design in the widest sense, it’s important to focus on the entirety of the customer journey, designing every point of contact between a user and a brand.
Forrester, the market research company, defines the customer journey as follows:
“The customer journey spans a variety of touchpoints by which the customer moves from awareness to engagement and purchase. Successful brands focus on developing a seamless experience that ensures each touchpoint interconnects and contributes to the overall journey.”
This idea — of a seamless and well-designed experience and a journey through a brand — should lie at the heart of a considered UX strategy. To design truly memorable experiences, we need to focus not just on websites or apps, but on all of the touchpoints a user might come into contact with.
Consider the Apple Store and its role acting as a beacon for Apple and all of its products. The Apple Store is, of course, an offline destination, but that doesn’t mean that the user experience of the store hasn’t been designed down to the last detail. The store is just one part of Apple’s wider engagement strategy, driving awareness of the business.
The Apple Store is an entry point into Apple’s ecosystem and, as such, it’s important that it’s considered in a holistic manner: Every aspect of it is designed.
Jesse James Garrett, the founder of Adaptive Path which is an end-to-end experience design company, considers this all-embracing approach in an excellent article, “Six Design Lessons From the Apple Store,” identifying a series of lessons we can learn from and apply to our designs. As Garrett notes:
“Apple wants to sell products, but their first priority is to make you want the products. And that desire has to begin with your experience of the products in the store.”
Seen through this lens, it becomes clear that the products we design are often just one aspect of a larger system, every aspect of which needs to be designed. As our industry has matured, we’ve started to draw lessons from other disciplines, including service design, considering every point as part of a broader service journey, helping us to situate our products within a wider context.
If service design is new to you, Nielsen Norman Group (helpful as ever), have an excellent primer on the discipline named “Service Design 101” which is well worth reading to gain an understanding of how a focus on service design can map over to other disciplines.
When designing a website or an app, it’s important to consider the totality of the customer journey and focus on all of the touchpoints a user will come into contact with. Do so, and we can deliver better and more memorable user experiences.
As our industry has evolved, we’ve begun to see our products less as standalone experiences, but as part of a wider network of experiences comprised of ‘touchpoints’ — all of which need to be designed.
Touchpoints are all the points at which a user comes into contact with a brand. As designers, our role is expanding to encompass a consideration of these touchpoints, as a part of a broader, connected UX strategy.
With the emergence of smartphones, tablets, wearables and connected products our scope has expanded, widening out to consider multiple points at which users come into contact with the brands we are designing.
When considering a UX strategy, it helps to spend some time listing all of the points at which a user will come into contact with the brand. These include:
In addition to these digital points of contact, it’s important to consider >non-digital points of contact, too. These off-screen points of contact include everything, from how someone answers the phone to the packaging of physical products.
To aid with this, it helps to develop a ‘touchpoints matrix’ — a visual framework that allows a designer to join the dots of the overall user experience. This matrix helps you to visually map out all of the different devices and contexts in which a user will come into contact with your brand.
The idea of a touchpoints matrix was conceived by Gianluca Brugnoli — a teacher at Politecnico di Milano and designer at Frog Design — as a tool that fuses customer journey mapping with system mapping, which can be used as the basis for considering how different user personas come into contact with and move through a brand.
Roberta Tassi, as part of her excellent website Service Design Tools — “an open collection of communication tools used in design processes that deal with complex systems” — provides an excellent primer on how a touchpoints matrix can be used as part of a holistic design strategy. Tassi provides a helpful overview, and I’d recommend bookmarking and exploring the website — it’s a comprehensive resource.
As she summarises:
“The matrix brings a deeper comprehension of interactions and facilitates further development of the opportunities given by the system — of the possible entry points and paths — shifting the focus of the design activities to connections.”
This shift — from stand-alone to connected experiences — is critically important in the development of a ‘joined up’ UX strategy.
When you embark upon developing and mapping a broader UX strategy, a touchpoints matrix helps you to see how the different nodes of a design join up to become part of an integrated and connected experience or an ‘ecosystem.’
When we holistically consider our role as designers, we can start to explore the design of the whole experience: from initial contact with a brand offline, through engaging with that brand digitally. Collectively, these amount to designing a brand ecosystem.
Ecosystems aren’t just for big brands — like Facebook, Instagram or Twitter — they are increasingly for everything we design. In a world that is ever more connected, what we design doesn’t stand in isolation. As such, we need to consider both context and scope as part of an integrated strategy.
In addition to considering the design of products, we also need to consider the wider ecosystem that these products sit within. For example, when considering the design of applications — whether web-based or native — we also need to consider: the user’s first point of contact and how we drive discovery; the experience while using the application itself; and addressing wider issues (such as offering users support).
All of the aspects of an ecosystem need to be designed so that we deliver great user experiences at every point in the process. This includes:
This list is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg, but it clearly shows that there are multiple points on a customer’s journey that need to be designed. A considered UX strategy helps us to deliver on all of these aspects of an ecosystem and become increasingly important as the ecosystems we design become richer and more complex.
The opportunities ahead are fantastic for designers working in this industry. The landscape we are designing for is evolving rapidly and, if we’re to stay ahead of the game, it’s important that we turn our attention towards the design of systems in addition to products. This involves an understanding of UX strategy in the broadest sense.
When embarking upon the design of a new website or product, or undertaking a redesign, it’s important to widen the frame of reference. Taking a step back and considering the entirety of the user experience leads to better and more memorable experiences.
By considering the entirety of the customer journey and all the touchpoints along the way we can create more robust, connected experiences. By focusing on the design of holistic experiences, we can delight users, ensuring they’re happy with the entire experience we have crafted.
This article is part of the UX design series sponsored by Adobe. Adobe XD is made for a fast and fluid UX design process, as it lets you go from idea to prototype faster. Design, prototype, and share — all in one app. You can check out more inspiring projects created with Adobe XD on Behance, and also sign up for the Adobe experience design newsletter to stay updated and informed on the latest trends and insights for UX/UI design.
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We’ve gone beyond the point of video being an up-and-coming trend. It’s here, and marketers should be using it to attract audiences and keep them engaged. That goes for eCommerce as much as any other industry. Data shows that video isn’t just effective when it comes to marketing. There’s also a continuously growing demand for content in video form. And while some 43% of consumers want to see brands produce more video, it’s not just the consumers who want more visual media. More than half of marketers worldwide say video delivers the best ROI. Additional data from HubSpot’s State of…
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How many times have you lost interest in a product? Let’s say it was a shiny new SaaS that caught your attention and you tried it out. Then, after a few minutes or a handful of efforts at it, you left. Never to return. It’s probably happened more times than you can count. Think back to times when that’s happened to you. Why did you lose interest? It’s likely that you lost interest because something went wrong along the way. Maybe you found a competitor’s product that was better, or maybe you weren’t convinced enough to buy anything. In other…
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