Tag Archives: design

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Designing A Textbox, Unabridged




Designing A Textbox, Unabridged

Shane Hudson



Ever spent an hour (or even a day) working on something just to throw the whole lot away and redo it in five minutes? That isn’t just a beginner’s code mistake; it is a real-world situation that you can easily find yourself in especially if the problem you’re trying to solve isn’t well understood to begin with.

This is why I’m such a big proponent of upfront design, user research, and creating often multiple prototypes — also known as the old adage of “You don’t know what you don’t know.” At the same time, it is very easy to look at something someone else has made, which may have taken them quite a lot of time, and think it is extremely easy because you have the benefit of hindsight by seeing a finished product.

This idea that simple is easy was summed up nicely by Jen Simmons while speaking about CSS Grid and Piet Mondrian’s paintings:

“I feel like these paintings, you know, if you look at them with the sense of like ‘Why’s that important? I could have done that.’ It’s like, well yeah, you could paint that today because we’re so used to this kind of thinking, but would you have painted this when everything around you was Victorian — when everything around you was this other style?”

I feel this sums up the feeling I have about seeing websites and design systems that make complete sense; it’s almost as if the fact they make sense means they were easy to make. Of course, it is usually the opposite; writing the code is the simple bit, but it’s the thinking and process that goes into it that takes the most effort.

With that in mind, I’m going to explore building a text box, in an exaggeration of situations many of us often find ourselves in. Hopefully, by the end of this article, we can all feel more emphatic to how the journey from start to finish is rarely linear.

A Comprehensive Guide To User Testing

So you think you’ve designed something that’s perfect, but your test tells you otherwise. Let’s explore the importance of user testing. Read more →

Brief

We all know that careful planning and understanding of the user need is important to a successful project of any size. We also all know that all too often we feel to need to rush to quickly design and develop new features. That can often mean our common sense and best practices are forgotten as we slog away to quickly get onto the next task on the everlasting to-do list. Rinse and repeat.

Today our task is to build a text box. Simple enough, it needs to allow a user to type in some text. In fact, it is so simple that we leave the task to last because there is so much other important stuff to do. Then, just before we pack up to go home, we smirk and write:

<input type="text">

There we go!

Oh wait, we probably need to hook that up to send data to the backend when the form is submitted, like so:

<input type="text" name="our_textbox">

That’s better. Done. Time to go home.

How Do You Add A New Line?

The issue with using a simple text box is it is pretty useless if you want to type a lot of text. For a name or title it works fine, but quite often a user will type more text than you expect. Trust me when I say if you leave a textbox for long enough without strict validation, someone will paste the entire of War and Peace. In many cases, this can be prevented by having a maximum amount of characters.

In this situation though, we have found out that our laziness (or bad prioritization) of leaving it to the last minute meant we didn’t consider the real requirements. We just wanted to do another task on that everlasting to-do list and get home. This text box needs to be reusable; examples of its usage include as a content entry box, a Twitter-style note box, and a user feedback box. In all of those cases, the user is likely to type a lot of text, and a basic text box would just scroll sideways. Sometimes that may be okay, but generally, that’s an awful experience.

Thankfully for us, that simple mistake doesn’t take long to fix:

<textarea name="our_textbox"></textarea>

Now, let’s take a moment to consider that line. A <textarea>: as simple as it can get without removing the name. Isn’t it interesting, or is it just my pedantic mind that we need to use a completely different element to add a new line? It isn’t a type of input, or an attribute used to add multi-line to an input. Also, the <textarea> element is not self-closing but an input is? Strange.

This “moment to consider” sent me time traveling back to October 1993, trawling through the depths of the www-talk mailing list. There was clearly much discussion about the future of the web and what “HTML+” should contain. This was 1993 and they were discussing ideas such as <input type="range"> which wasn’t available until HTML5, and Jim Davis said:

“Well, it’s far-fetched I suppose, but you might use HTML forms as part of a game playing interface.”

This really does show that the web wasn’t just intended to be about documents as is widely believed. Marc Andreessen suggested to have <input type="textarea"> instead of allowing new lines in the single-line text type, [saying]: (http://1997.webhistory.org/www.lists/www-talk.1993q4/0200.html)

“Makes the browser code cleaner — they have to be handled differently internally.”

That’s a fair reason to have <textarea> separate to text, but that’s still not what we ended up with. So why is <textarea> its own element?

I didn’t find any decision in the mailing list archives, but by the following month, the HTML+ Discussion Document had the <textarea> element and a note saying:

“In the initial design for forms, multi-line text fields were supported by the INPUT element with TYPE=TEXT. Unfortunately, this causes problems for fields with long text values as SGML limits the length of attributea literals. The HTML+ DTD allows for up to 1024 characters (the SGML default is only 240 characters!)”

Ah, so that’s why the text goes within the element and cannot be self-closing; they were not able to use an attribute for long text. In 1994, the <textarea> element was included, along with many others from HTML+ such as <option> in the HTML 2 spec.

Okay, that’s enough. I could easily explore the archives further but back to the task.

Styling A <textarea>

So we’ve got a default <textarea>. If you rarely use them or haven’t seen the browser defaults in a long time, then you may be surprised. A <textarea> (made almost purely for multi-line text) looks very similar to a normal text input except most browser defaults style the border darker, the box slightly larger, and there are lines in the bottom right. Those lines are the resize handle; they aren’t actually part of the spec so browsers all handle (pun absolutely intended) it in their own way. That generally means that the resize handle cannot be restyled, though you can disable resizing by setting resize: none to the <textarea>. It is possible to create a custom handle or use browser specific pseudo elements such as ::-webkit-resizer.


The default <code>&lt;textarea&gt;</code> looks very small with a grey border and three lines as a resize handle.


A default textarea with no styling (Large preview)

It’s important to understand the defaults, especially because of the resizing ability. It’s a very unique behavior; the user is able to drag to change the size of the element by default. If you don’t override the minimum and maximum sizes then the size could be as small as 9px × 9px (when I checked Chrome) or as large as they have patience to drag it. That’s something that could cause mayhem with the rest of the site’s layout if it’s not considered. Imagine a grid where <textarea> is in one column and a blue box is in another; the size of the blue box is purely decided by the size of the <textarea>.

Other than that, we can approach styling a <textarea> much the same as any other input. Want to change the grey around the edge into thick green dashes? Sure here you go: border: 5px dashed green;. Want to restyle the focus in which a lot of browsers have a slightly blurred box shadow? Change the outline — responsibly though, you know, that’s important for accessibility. You can even add a background image to your <textarea> if that interests you (I can think of a few ideas that would have been popular when skeuomorphic design was more celebrated).

Scope Creep

We’ve all experienced scope creep in our work, whether it is a client that doesn’t think the final version matches their idea or you just try to squeeze in a tiny tweak and end up taking forever to finish it. So I ( enjoying creating the persona of an exaggerated project manager telling us what we need to build) have decided that our <textarea> just is not good enough. Yes, it is now multi-line, and that’s great, and yes it even ‘pops’ a bit more with its new styling. Yet, it just doesn’t fit the very vague user need that I’ve pretty much just thought of now after we thought we were almost done.

What happens if the user puts in thousands of words? Or drags the resize handle so far it breaks the layout? It needs to be reusable, as we have already mentioned, but in some of the situations (such as a ‘Twittereqsue’ note taking box), we will need a limit. So the next task is to add a character limit. The user needs to be able to see how many characters they have left.

In the same way we started with <input> instead of <textarea>, it is very easy to think that adding the maxlength attribute would solve our issue. That is one way to limit the amount of characters the user types, it uses the browser’s built-in validation, but it is not able to display how many characters are left.

We started with the HTML, then added the CSS, now it is time for some JavaScript. As we’ve seen, charging along like a bull in a china shop without stopping to consider the right approaches can really slow us down in the long run. Especially in situations where there is a large refactor required to change it. So let’s think about this counter; it needs to update as the user types, so we need to trigger an event when the user types. It then needs to check if the amount of text is already at the maximum length.

So which event handler should we choose?

  • change
    Intuitively, it may make sense to choose the change event. It works on <textarea> and does what it says on the tin. Except, it only triggers when the element loses focus so it wouldn’t update while typing.
  • keypress
    The keypress event is triggered when typing any character, which is a good start. But it does not trigger when characters are deleted, so the counter wouldn’t update after pressing backspace. It also doesn’t trigger after a copy/paste.
  • keyup
    This one gets quite close, it is triggered whenever a key has been pressed (including the backspace button). So it does trigger when deleting characters, but still not after a copy/paste.
  • input
    This is the one we want. This triggers whenever a character is added, deleted or pasted.

This is another good example of how using our intuition just isn’t enough sometimes. There are so many quirks (especially in JavaScript!) that are all important to consider before getting started. So the code to add a counter that updates needs to update a counter (which we’ve done with a span that has a class called counter) by adding an input event handler to the <textarea>. The maximum amount of characters is set in a variable called maxLength and added to the HTML, so if the value is changed it is changed in only one place.

var textEl = document.querySelector('textarea')
var counterEl = document.querySelector('.counter')
var maxLength = 200
    
textEl.setAttribute('maxlength', maxLength)
textEl.addEventListener('input', (val) => 
var count = textEl.value.length
counterEl.innerHTML = $count/$maxLength
})

Browser Compatibility And Progressive Enhancement

Progressive enhancement is a mindset in which we understand that we have no control over what the user exactly sees on their screen, and instead, we try to guide the browser. Responsive Web Design is a good example, where we build a website that adjusts to suit the content on the particular size viewport without manually setting what each size would look like. It means that on the one hand, we strongly care that a website works across all browsers and devices, but on the other hand, we don’t care that they look exactly the same.

Currently, we are missing a trick. We haven’t set a sensible default for the counter. The default is currently “0/200” if 200 were the maximum length; this kind of makes sense but has two downsides. The first, it doesn’t really make sense at first glance. You need to start typing before it is obvious the 0 updates as you type. The other downside is that the 0 updates as you type, meaning if the JavaScript event doesn’t trigger properly (maybe the script did not download correctly or uses JavaScript that an old browser doesn’t support such as the double arrow in the code above) then it won’t do anything. A better way would be to think carefully beforehand. How would we go about making it useful when it is both working and when it isn’t?

In this case, we could make the default text be “200 character limit.” This would mean that without any JavaScript at all, the user would always see the character limit but it just wouldn’t feedback about how close they are to the limit. However, when the JavaScript is working, it would update as they type and could say “200 characters remaining” instead. It is a very subtle change but means that although two users could get different experiences, neither are getting an experience that feels broken.

Another default that we could set is the maxlength on the element itself rather than afterwards with JavaScript. Without doing this, the baseline version (the one without JS) would be able to type past the limit.

User Testing

It’s all very well testing on various browsers and thinking about the various permutations of how devices could serve the website in a different way, but are users able to use it?

Generally speaking, no. I’m consistently shocked by user testing; people never use a site how you expect them to. This means that user testing is crucial.

It’s quite hard to simulate a user test session in an article, so for the purposes of this article, I’m going to just focus on one point that I’ve seen users struggle with on various projects.

The user is happily writing away, gets to 0 characters remaining, and then gets stuck. They forget what they were writing, or they don’t notice that it had stopped typing.

This happens because there is nothing telling the user that something has changed; if they are typing away without paying much attention, then they can hit the maximum length without noticing. This is a frustrating experience.

One way to solve this issue is to allow overtyping, so the maximum length still counts for it to be valid when submitted but it allows the user to type as much as they want and then edit it before submission. This is a good solution as it gives the control back to the user.

Okay, so how do we implement overtyping? Instead of jumping into the code, let’s step through in theory. maxlength doesn’t allow overtyping, it just stops allowing input once it hits the limit. So we need to remove maxlength and write a JS equivalent. We can use the input event handler as we did before, as we know that works on paste, etc. So in that event, the handler would check if the user has typed more than the limit, and if so, the counter text could change to say “10 characters too many.” The baseline version (without the JS) would no longer have a limit at all, so a useful middle ground could be to add the maxlength to the element in the HTML and remove the attribute using JavaScript.

That way, the user would see that they are over the limit without being cut off while typing. There would still need to be validation to make sure it isn’t submitted, but that is worth the extra small bit of work to make the user experience far better.


An example showing “17 characters too many” in red text next to a <code>&lt;textarea&gt;</code>.


Allowing the user to overtype (Large preview)

Designing The Overtype

This gets us to quite a solid position: the user is now able to use any device and get a decent experience. If they type too much it is not going to cut them off; instead, it will just allow it and encourage them to edit it down.

There’s a variety of ways this could be designed differently, so let’s look at how Twitter handles it:


A screenshot from Twitter showing their textarea with overtyped text with a red background.


Twitter’s <textarea> (Large preview)

Twitter has been iterating its main tweet <textarea> since they started the company. The current version uses a lot of techniques that we could consider using.

As you type on Twitter, there is a circle that completes once you get to the character limit of 280. Interestingly, it doesn’t say how many characters are available until you are 20 characters away from the limit. At that point, the incomplete circle turns orange. Once you have 0 characters remaining, it turns red. After the 0 characters, the countdown goes negative; it doesn’t appear to have a limit on how far you can overtype (I tried as far as 4,000 characters remaining) but the tweet button is disabled while overtyping.

So this works the same way as our <textarea> does, with the main difference being the characters represented by a circle that updates and shows the number of characters remaining after 260 characters. We could implement this by removing the text and replacing it with an SVG circle.

The other thing that Twitter does is add a red background behind the overtyped text. This makes it completely obvious that the user is going to need to edit or remove some of the text to publish the tweet. It is a really nice part of the design. So how would we implement that? We would start again from the beginning.

You remember the part where we realized that a basic input text box would not give us multiline? And that a maxlength attribute would not give us the ability to overtype? This is one of those cases. As far as I know, there is nothing in CSS that gives us the ability to style parts of the text inside a <textarea>. This is the point where some people would suggest web components, as what we would need is a pretend <textarea>. We would need some kind of element — probably a div — with contenteditable on it and in JS we would need to wrap the overtyped text in a span that is styled with CSS.

What would the baseline non-JS version look like then? Well, it wouldn’t work at all because while contenteditable will work without JS, we would have no way to actually do anything with it. So we would need to have a <textarea> by default and remove that if JS is available. We would also need to do a lot of accessibility testing because while we can trust a <textarea> to be accessible relying on browser features is a much safer bet than building your own components. How does Twitter handle it? You may have seen it; if you are on a train and your JavaScript doesn’t load while going into a tunnel then you get chucked into a decade-old legacy version of Twitter where there is no character limit at all.

What happens then if you tweet over the character limit? Twitter reloads the page with an error message saying “Your Tweet was over the character limit. You’ll have to be more clever.” No, Twitter. You need to be more clever.

Retro

The only way to conclude this dramatization is a retrospective. What went well? What did we learn? What would we do differently next time or what would we change completely?

We started very simple with a basic textbox; in some ways, this is good because it can be all too easy to overcomplicate things from the beginning and an MVP approach is good. However, as time went on, we realized how important it is to have some critical thinking and to consider what we are doing. We should have known a basic textbox wouldn’t be enough and that a way of setting a maximum length would be useful. It is even possible that if we have conducted or sat in on user research sessions in the past that we could have anticipated the need to allow overtyping. As for the browser compatibility and user experiences across devices, considering progressive enhancement from the beginning would have caught most of those potential issues.

So one change we could make is to be much more proactive about the thinking process instead of jumping straight into the task, thinking that the code is easy when actually the code is the least important part.

On a similar vein to that, we had the “scope creep” of maxlength, and while we could possibly have anticipated that, we would rather not have any scope creep at all. So everybody involved from the beginning would be very useful, as a diverse multidisciplinary approach to even small tasks like this can seriously reduce the time it takes to figure out and fix all the unexpected tweaks.

Back To The Real World

Okay, so I can get quite deep into this made-up project, but I think it demonstrates well how complicated the most seemingly simple tasks can be. Being user-focussed, having a progressive enhancement mindset, and thinking things through from the beginning can have a real impact on both the speed and quality of delivery. And I didn’t even mention testing!

I went into some detail about the history of the <textarea> and which event listeners to use, some of this can seem overkill, but I find it fascinating to gain a real understanding of the subtleties of the web, and it can often help demystify issues we will face in the future.

Smashing Editorial
(ra, il)


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Designing A Textbox, Unabridged

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A Brief Guide About Competitive Analysis




A Brief Guide About Competitive Analysis

Mayur Kshirsagar



In this article, I will introduce the subject of competitive analysis, which is basically a method to determine how well your competitors are performing. My aim is to introduce the subject to those of you who are new to the concept. It should be useful if you are new to product design, UX, interaction or digital design, or if you have experience in these fields but have not performed a competitive analysis before.

No prior knowledge of the topic is needed because I’ll be explaining what the term means and how to perform a competitive analysis as we go. I am assuming some basic knowledge of the design process and UX research, but I’ll provide plenty of practical examples and reference links to help with any terms and concepts you might be unfamiliar with.

Note: If you are a beginner in UX and interaction design, it would be good to know the basics of the design process and to know what is UX research (and the methods used for UX research) before diving into the article’s main topic. Please read the next section carefully because I’ve added reference links to help you get started.

Recommended reading: Standing Out From The Crowd: Improving Your Mobile App With Competitive Analysis

Competitive Analysis, Service Design Cycle, Five-Stages Design Process

If you are a UX designer, then you might be aware of the service design cycle. This cycle contains four stages: discover, explore, test and listen. Each one of these stages has multiple research methods, and competitive analysis is part of the exploration. Susan Farrell has very helpfully distinguished different UX research methods and activities that can be performed for your project. (You can check this detailed segregation in her “UX Research Cheat Sheet”.)

The image below shows the four steps and the most commonly used methods in these steps.




(Large preview)

If you are new to this concept, you might first ask, “What is service design?” Shahrzad Samadzadeh explains it very well in her article, “So, Like, What Is Service Design?.”

Note: You can also learn more about service design in Sarah Gibbons’s article, “Service Design 101.”

Often, UX designers follow the five-stages design process in their projects:

  1. empathize,
  2. define,
  3. ideate,
  4. prototype,
  5. test.

The five-stages design process.


The five-stages design process. (Large preview)

Please don’t confuse the five-stages design process with the service design cycle. Basically, they serve the same purpose in the design thinking process, but are explained in different styles. Here is a brief explanation of what these five stages contain:

  • Empathize
    This stage involves gaining a clear understanding of the problem you are trying to solve from the user’s point of view.
  • Define
    This stage involves defining the correct statement for the problem you are trying to solve, using the knowledge you gained in the first stage.
  • Ideate
    In this stage, you can generate different solution ideas for the problem.
  • Prototype
    Basically, a prototype is an attempt to give your solution some form so that it can be explained to others. For digital products, a prototype could be a wireframe set created using pen and paper or using a tool such as Balsamiq or Sketch, or it could be a visual design prototype created using a tool such as Sketch, Figma, Adobe XD or InVision.
  • Test
    Testing involves validating and evaluating all of your solutions with the users.

You can perform UX research at any stage. Many articles and books are available for you to learn more about this design process. “Five Stages in the Design Thinking Process” by Rikke Dam and Teo Siang is one of my favorite articles on the topic.


The most frequent methods used by UX professionals during the exploration stage of the design life cycle


The most frequent methods used by UX professionals during the exploration stage of the design life cycle. (Nielsen Norman Group, “User Experience Careers” survey report) (Large preview)

According to Nielsen Norman Group’s “User Experience Careers” survey report, 61% of UX professionals prefer to do the competitive analysis for their projects. But what exactly is competitive analysis? In simple language, competitive analysis is nothing but a method to determine how your competitors are performing, what they are offering and how well they are doing it.

Sometimes, competitive analysis is referred as competitive usability evaluation.

Why Should You Do A Competitive Analysis?

There are many reasons to do a competitive analysis, but I think the most important reason is that it helps us to understand the rights and wrongs of our own product or service.

Using competitive analysis, you can make decisions based on knowledge of what is currently working well for your users, rather than based on guesses or intuition. In doing competitive analysis, you can also identify risks in your product or service and use those insights to add value to it.

Recently, I was working on a project in which I did a competitive analysis of a feature (collaborative meeting note-taking) that a client wanted to introduce in their web app. Note-taking is not exactly a new or highly innovative thing, so the biggest challenge I was facing was to make this functionality simpler and easier to handle, because the product I was working on was in the very early stages of development. The feature, in a nutshell, was to create a simple text document where some interactive action items could be added.

Because a ton of apps are out there that allow you to create simple text documents, I decided to do a competitive analysis for this functionality. (I’ll explain this process in more detail later in the section “Five Easy Steps to Do a Competitive Analysis”.)

How To Find The Right Competitors?

Basically, there are two types of competitors: direct and indirect. As a UX designer, your role is to study the designs of these competitors.

Jaime Levy gives very good definitions of direct and indirect competitors in her book UX Strategy. You can learn more about competitive analysis (and types of competitors) in chapter 4 of the book, “Conducting Competitive Research”.


Types of competitors


Types of competitors. (Large preview)

Direct competitors are the ones who offer the same, or a very similar, set of features to your current or future customers, which means they are solving a similar problem to the one you are trying to solve, for a customer base that you are targeting as well.

Indirect competitors are the ones who offers a similar set of features but to a different customer segment; or, they target your exact customer base without offering the exact same set of features, which means indirect competitors are solving the same problem but for a different customer base, or are solving the same problem but offer a different solution.

You can search for these types of competitors online (by doing a simple web search), or you can directly ask your current and potential customers what they are using already. You can also look for your direct and indirect competitors on websites such as Crunchbase and Product Hunt, and you can search for them in the Google Play and the iOS App Store.

Five Easy Steps To Do A Competitive Analysis

You can perform a competitive analysis for your existing or new product using the following five-step process.


5 steps to do a competitive analysis


5 steps to do a competitive analysis. (Large preview)

1. Define And Understand The Goals

Defining and understanding the goal is an integral part of any UX research process. You must define an accurate goal (or set of goals) for your research; otherwise, there is a chance you’ll get the wrong outcome.

Draft all of your goals right before starting your process. When defining your goals, consider the following questions: Why are you doing this competitive analysis? What kind of outcome do you expect? Will this analysis affect UX decisions?

Remember: When setting up goals for any kind of UX research, be as specific as possible.

I mentioned earlier that I recently performed a competitive analysis for a collaborative meeting note-taking feature, to be introduced in the app that I was developing for a client. The goals for my research were very general because innumerable apps all provide this type of functionality, and the product I was working on was in the very early stages of development.

Even though your research goals might be simple, make them as specific as possible, and write them all down. Writing down your goals will help you stay on the right track.

The goals for my analysis were more like questions for which I was trying to find the answers. Here is the list of goals I set for this research:

  • Which apps do users prefer for note-taking? And why do they prefer them?
    Goal: To find out the user’s behavior with these apps, their preferences and their comfort zone.
  • What is the working mechanism of these apps?
    Goal: To find how out competitors’ apps work, so that we can identify their pros and cons.
  • What are the “star” features of these apps?
    Goal: To identify functionalities that we were trying to introduce as well, to see whether they already exist and, if they exist, how exactly they were implemented.
  • How comfortable does a user feel when using these apps?
    Goal: To identify user loyalty and engagement in the apps of our competitors.
  • How does collaborative editing work in these competitive apps?
    Goal: To identify how collaborative-editing functionality works and to study its technical aspects.
  • What is the visual structure and user interface of these apps?
    Goal: To check the visual look and feel of the apps (user interface and interaction).

2. Find The Right Competitors

After setting the goals, go on a search and make a list of both direct and indirect competitors. It’s not necessary to analyze all of the competitors you find. The number is completely up to you. Some people suggest analyzing at least two to four competitors, while others suggest five to ten or more.

Finding the right competitors for my research wasn’t a hard task because I already knew many apps that provided similar features, but I still did a quick search on Google, and the results were a bit surprising — surprising because most of the apps I knew turned out to be more like indirect competitors to the app I was working on; and later, after a bit more searching, I also found the apps that were our direct competitors.

Putting each competitor in the right list is a very important part of competitive analysis because the features and functionality in your competitors’ apps are based on exactly what users of those apps want. Let’s assume you put one indirect competitor, XYZ, under the “direct competitors” list and start doing your analysis. While doing the research, you might find some impressive feature in XYZ’s app and decide to add a similar feature in your own app; then, later it turns out that the feature you added is not useful for the users you are targeting. You might end up wasting a lot of energy, time and money building something that is not at all useful. So, be careful when sorting your competitors.

For my research, the competitors were as follows:

  • Direct competitorsQuip, Cisco Spark Meeting Notes, Workboard, Lucid Meeting, Less Meeting, MeetingSense, Minute-it, etc.
    • All of the apps above provide the same type of functionality, which we were trying to introduce for almost the same type of user base.
  • Indirect competitorsEvernote, Google Keep, Google Docs, Microsoft Word, Microsoft OneNote and other traditional note-taking apps and pen-paper note-taking methods.
    • The user base for all of the above is not exactly different from the user base we were targeting, but most of the users we were targeting were using these apps because they were unaware of the more convenient ways to take meeting notes.

3. Make A Competitive Analysis Matrix

A competitive analysis matrix is not complex, just a simple spreadsheet. You can use Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, Apple Numbers or any other tool you are comfortable with.

First, divide all competitors you’ve found into two groups (direct and indirect) and put them in a spreadsheet. Jamie Levy suggests making the following columns:

  1. competitor’s name,
  2. URL,
  3. login credentials,
  4. purpose,
  5. year founded.

Example of competitive analysis matrix spreadsheet from UX Strategy, Jaime Levy’s book.


Example of competitive analysis matrix spreadsheet from UX Strategy, Jaime Levy’s book. (Large preview)

I would recommend digging a bit deeper and adding a few more columns, such as for “unique features”, “pros and cons”, etc. It would help to summarize your analysis. It’s not necessary to set your columns exactly as mentioned above. You can modify the columns to your own research goals and needs.

For my analysis, I created only four columns. My competitive analysis matrix looked as follows:

  • Competitor nameIn this column, I put the names of all of the competitors.
  • URLThese are website links or app download links for these competitors.
  • Features/commentsIn this column, I put all of my comments, some ”star” features I needed to focus on, and the pros and cons of the competitor. I color-coded the cells so that later I (or anyone viewing the matrix) could easily identify the difference between them. For example, I used light yellow for features, light purple for comments, green for pros and red for cons.
  • Screenshots/video linksIn this column, I put all of the screenshots and videos related to the features and comments mentioned in the third column. This way, it became very easy and quick to understand what a particular comment or feature was all about.



(Large preview)

4. Write A Summary And An Analysis

Once you are done with the analysis matrix spreadsheet, move on and create a summary of your findings. Be as specific as possible, and try to answer all of your questions while setting up a goal or during the overall process.

This will help you and your team members and stakeholders make the right design and UX decisions. This summary will also help you find new design and UX opportunities in the product you’re building.

In writing the summary and the presentation for the competitive analysis that I did for this collaborative note-taking app, the competitive analysis matrix helped me a lot. I drafted a document with all of the high-level takeaways from this analysis and answered all of the questions that were set as goals. For the presentation, I shared the document with the client, which helped both the client and me to finalize the features, the flows and the end requirements for the product.

5. Presentation

The last step of your competitive analysis is the presentation. It’s not a typical slideshow presentation — rather, just share all of the data and information you collected throughout the process with your teammates, stakeholders and/or clients.

Getting feedback from everywhere you can and being open to this feedback is a very important part of the designer’s workflow. So, share all of your finding with your teammates, stakeholders and clients, and ask for their opinion. You might find some missing points in your analysis or discover something new and exciting from someone’s feedback.

Conclusion

We live in a data-driven world, and we should build products, services and apps based on data, rather than our intuition (or guesswork).

As UX designers, we should go out there and collect as much data as possible before building a real product. This data will help us to create a solid product that users will want to use, rather than a product we want or imagine. These kinds of products are more likely to succeed in the market. Competitive analysis is one of the ways to get this data and to create a user-friendly product.

Finally, no matter what kind of product you are building or research you are conducting, always try to put yourself in the users’ shoes every now and then. This way, you will be able to identify the users’ struggles and ultimately deliver a better solution.

I hope this article has helped you plan and make your first competitive analysis for your next project!

Further Reading

If you want to become a better UX, interaction, visual (UI) or product designer, there are a lot of sources from which you can learn — articles, books, online courses. I often check the following few: Smashing Magazine, InVision blog, Interaction Design Foundation, NN Group and UX Mastery. These websites have a very good collection of articles on the topics of UI and UX design and UX research.

Here are some additional resources:

Smashing Editorial
(mb, ra, al, yk, il)


Excerpt from – 

A Brief Guide About Competitive Analysis

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Best Practices For Mobile Form Design




Best Practices For Mobile Form Design

Nick Babich



(This article is kindly sponsored by Adobe.) Forms are the linchpin of all mobile interactions; it stands between the person and what they’re looking for. Every day, we use forms for essential online activities. Recall the last time you bought a ticket, booked a hotel room or made a purchase online — most probably those interactions contained a step with filling out a form.

Forms are just a means to an end. Users should be able to complete them quickly and without confusion. In this article, you’ll learn practical techniques that will help you design an effective form.

What Makes For An Effective Form

The primary goal with every form is completion. Two factors have a major impact on completion rate:

  • Perception of complexity
    The first thing users do when they see a new form is estimate how much time is required to complete it. Users do this by scanning the form. Perception plays a crucial role in the process of estimation. The more complex a form looks, the more likely users will abandon the process.
  • Interaction cost
    Interaction cost is the sum of efforts — both cognitive and physical — that the users put into interacting with an interface in order to reach their goal. Interaction cost has a direct connection with form usability. The more effort users have to make to complete a form, the less usable the form is. A high interaction cost could be the result of data that is difficult to input, an inability to understand the meaning of some questions, or confusion about error messages.

The Components Of Forms

A typical form has the following five components:

  • Input fields
    These include text fields, password fields, checkboxes, radio buttons, sliders and any other fields designed for user input.
  • Field labels
    These tell users what the corresponding input fields mean.
  • Structure
    This includes the order of fields, the form’s appearance on the page, and the logical connections between different fields.
  • Action buttons
    The form will have at least one call to action (the button that triggers data submission).
  • Feedback
    Feedback notifies the user about the result of an operation. Feedback can be positive (for example, indicating that the form was submitted successfully) or negative (saying something like, “The number you’ve provided is incorrect”).

This article covers many aspects related to structure, input fields, labels, action buttons and validation. Most points mentioned in this article have visual do and don’t examples; all such examples were created using Adobe XD.

Input Fields

When it comes to form design, the most important thing a designer can do is to minimize the need for typing. Reducing input effort is essential. Designers can achieve this goal by focusing on form field design.

Minimize The Total Number Of Fields

Every field you ask users to fill out requires some effort. The more effort is needed to fill out a form, the less likely users will complete the form. That’s why the foundational rule of form design is shorter is better — get rid of all inessential fields.

Baymard Institute analyzed checkout forms and found that a too long or too complicated checkout process is one of the top reasons for abandonment during checkout. The study found that the average checkout contains almost 15 form fields. Most online services could reduce the number of fields displayed by default by 20 to 60%.




Top reasons for abandonment during checkout. (Image: Baymard Institute) (Large preview)

Many designers are familiar with the “less is more” rule; still, they ask additional questions in an attempt to gather more data about their users. It might be tempting to collect more data about your users during the initial signup, but resist that temptation. Think about it this way: With every additional field you add to your form, you increase the chance of losing a prospective user. Is the information you gain from a field worth losing new users? Remember that, as long as you’ve collected a user’s contact information, you can always follow up with a request for more data.

Clearly Distinguish All Optional Fields

Before optimizing optional fields, ask yourself whether you really need to include them in your form. Think about what information you really need, not what you want. Ideally, the number of optional fields in your form should be zero.

If after a brainstorming session, you still want to include a few optional questions in your form, make it clear for users that those fields are optional:

  • Mark optional fields instead of mandatory ones.
    If you ask as little as possible, then the vast majority of fields in your form will be mandatory. Therefore, mark only those fields in the minority. For instance, if five out of six fields are mandatory, then it makes sense to mark only one field as optional.
  • Use the “Optional” label to denote optional fields.
    Avoid using the asterisk (*) to mean “optional.” Not all users will associate the asterisk with optional information, and some users will be confused by the meaning (an asterisk is often used to denote mandatory fields).

Clearly distinguish all optional fields.


Clearly distinguish all optional fields. (Large preview)

Size Fields Accordingly

When possible, use field length as an affordance. The length of an input field should be in proportion to the amount of information expected in the field. The size of the field will act as a visual constraint — the user will know how much text is expected to be entered just by looking at the field. Generally, fields such as ones for area codes and house numbers should be shorter than ones for street addresses.


The size of a field is used as a visual constraint.


The size of a field is used as a visual constraint. (Large preview)

Offer Field Focus

Auto-focus the first input field in your form. Auto-focusing a field gives the user an indication and a starting point, so that they are able to quickly start filling out the form. By doing that, you reduce the interaction cost — saving the user one unnecessary tap.

Make the active input field prominent and focused. The field focus itself should be crystal clear — users should be able to understand at a glance where the focus is. It could be an accented border color or a fade-in of the box.


Amazon puts strong visual focus on the input field.


Amazon puts strong visual focus on the input field. (Large preview)

Don’t Ask Users To Repeat Their Email Address

The reason why an extra field for the email address is so popular among product developers is apparent: Every company wants to minimize the risk of hard bounces (non-deliverables caused by invalid email addresses). Unfortunately, following this approach doesn’t guarantee that you’ll get a valid address. Users often copy and paste their address from one field to another.


Avoid asking users to retype their email address.


Avoid asking users to retype their email address. (Large preview)

Provide “Show Password” Option

Duplicating the password input field is another common mistake among product designers. Designers follow this approach because they believe it will prevent users from mistyping a password. In reality, a second field for a password not only increases interaction cost, but also doesn’t guarantee that users will proceed without mistakes. Because users don’t see what they’ve entered in the field, they can make the same mistake twice (in both fields) and will face a problem when they try to log in using a password. As Jakob Nielsen summarized:

Usability suffers when users type in passwords and the only feedback they get is a row of bullets. Typically, masking passwords doesn’t even increase security, but it does cost you business due to login failures.

Instead of duplicating the password field, provide an option that allows users to view the password they have chosen to create. Have an icon or checkbox that unmasks the password when clicked. A password preview can be an opportunity for users to check their data before sending.


Show password' option


Not being able to see what you’re typing is a huge issue. Providing a ‘Show password’ option next to the password field will help to solve this problem. (Large preview)

Don’t Slice Data Fields

Do not slice fields when asking for a full name, phone number or date of birth. Sliced fields force the user to make additional taps to move to the next field. For fields that require some formatting (such as phone numbers or a date of birth), it’s also better to have a single field paired with clear formatting rules as its placeholder.


“Full name” field


Avoid splitting input fields; don’t make people jump between fields. Instead of asking for a first name and last name in two separate fields, have a single ‘Full name’ field. (Large preview)

Avoid Dropdown Menus

Luke Wroblewski famously said that dropdowns should be the UI of last resort. Dropdowns are especially bad for mobile because collapsed elements make the process of data input harder on a small screen: Placing options in a dropdown requires two taps and hides the options.

If you’re using a dropdown for selection of options, consider replacing it with radio buttons. They will make all options glanceable and also reduce the interaction cost — users can tap on the item and select at once.




(Large preview)

Use Placeholders And Masked Input

Formatting uncertainty is one of the most significant problems of form design. This problem has a direct connection with form abandonment — when users are uncertain of the format in which they should provide data, they can quickly abandon the form. There are a few things you can do to make the format clear.

Placeholder Text

The text in an input field can tell users what content is expected. Placeholder text is not required for simple fields such as “Full name”, but it can be extremely valuable for fields that require data in a specific format. For example, if you design search functionality for tracking a parcel, it would be good to provide a sample tracking number as a placeholder for the tracking-number field.




(Large preview)

It’s vital that your form should have a clear visual distinction between the placeholder text and the actual value entered by the user. In other words, placeholder text shouldn’t look like a preset value. Without clear visual distinction, users might think that the fields with placeholders already have values.

Masked Input

Field masking is a technique that helps users format inputted text. Many designers confuse field masking with placeholder text — they are not the same thing. Unlike placeholders, which are basically static text, masks automatically format the data provided by the user. In the example below, the parentheses, spaces and dashes appear on the screen automatically as a phone number is entered.

Masked input also makes it easy for users to validate information. When a phone number is displayed in chunks, it makes it easier to find and correct a typo.

Masked input for a phone number. (Image: Josh Morony)

Provide Matching Keyboard

Mobile users appreciate apps and websites that provide an appropriate keyboard for the field. This feature prevents them from doing additional actions. For example, when users need to enter a credit card number, your app should only display the dialpad. It’s essential to implement keyboard matching consistently throughout the app (all forms in your app should have this feature).

Set HTML input types to show the correct keypad. Seven input types are relevant to form design:

  • input type="text" displays the mobile device’s normal keyboard.
  • input type="email" displays the normal keyboard and ‘@’ and ‘.com’.
  • input type="tel" displays the numeric 0 to 9 keypad.
  • input type="number" displays a keyboard with numbers and symbols.
  • input type="date" displays the mobile device’s date selector.
  • input type="datetime" displays the mobile device’s date and time selector.
  • input type="month" displays the mobile device’s month and year selector.



When users tap into a field with credit card number, they should see a numerical dialpad — all numbers, no letters. (Large preview)

Use A Slider When Asking For A Specific Range

Many forms ask users to provide a range of values (for example, a price range, distance range, etc.). Instead of using two separate fields, “from” and “to”, for that purpose, use a slider to allow users to specify the range with a thumb interaction.


Sliders are good for touch interfaces because they allow users to specify a range without typing.


Sliders are good for touch interfaces because they allow users to specify a range without typing. (Large preview)

Clearly Explain Why You’re Asking For Sensitive Information

People are increasingly concerned about privacy and information security. When users see a request for information they consider as private, they might think, “Hm, why do they need this?” If your form asks users for sensitive information, make sure to explain why you need it. You can do that by adding support text below relevant fields. As a rule of thumb, the explanation text shouldn’t exceed 100 characters.


A request for a phone number in a booking form might confuse users. Explain why you are asking for it.


A request for a phone number in a booking form might confuse users. Explain why you are asking for it. (Large preview)

Be Careful With Static Defaults

Unlike smart defaults, which are calculated by the system based on the information the system has about users, static defaults are preset values in forms that are the same for all users. Avoid static defaults unless you believe a significant portion of your users (say, 95%) would select those values — particularly for required fields. Why? Because you’re likely to introduce errors — people scan forms quickly, and they won’t spend extra time parsing all of the questions; instead, they’ll simply skip the field, assuming it already has a value.

Protect User Data

Jef Raskin once said, “The system should treat all user input as sacred.” This is absolutely true for forms. It’s great when you start filling in a web form and then accidentally refresh the page but the data remains in the fields. Tools such as Garlic.js help you to persist a form’s values locally until the form is submitted. This way, users won’t lose any precious data if they accidentally close the tab or browser.

Automate Actions

If you want to make the process of data input as smooth as possible, it’s not enough to minimize the number of input fields — you should also pay attention to the user effort required for the data input. Typing has a high interaction cost — it’s error-prone and time-consuming, even with a physical keyboard. But when it comes to mobile screens, it becomes even more critical. More typing increases the user’s chance of making errors. Strive to prevent unnecessary typing, because it will improve user satisfaction and decrease error rates.

Here are a few things you can do to achieve this goal:

Autocomplete

Most users experience autocompletion when typing a question in Google’s search box. Google provides users with a list of suggestions related to what the user has typed in the field. The same mechanism can be applied to form design. For example, a form could autocomplete an email address.

This form suggests the email host and saves users from typing a complete address. (Image: GitHub)
Autocapitalize

Autocapitalizing makes the first letter a capital automatically. This feature is excellent for fields like names and street addresses, but avoid it for password fields.

Autocorrect

Autocorrection modifies words that appear to be misspelled. Turn this feature off for unique fields, such as names, addresses, etc.

Auto-filling of personal details

Typing an address is often the most cumbersome part of any online signup form. Make this task easier by using the browser function to fill the field based on previously entered values. According to Google’s research, auto-filling helps people fill out forms 30% faster.

Address prefill. Image: Google

Use The Mobile Device’s Native Features To Simplify Data Input

Modern mobile devices are sophisticated devices that have a ton of amazing capabilities. Designers can use a device’s native features (such as camera or geolocation) to streamline the task of inputting data.

Below are just a few tips on how to make use of sensors and device hardware.

Location Services

It’s possible to preselect the user’s country based on their geolocation data. But sometimes prefilling a full address can be problematic due to accuracy issues. Google’s Places API can help solve this problem. It uses both geolocation and address prefilling to provide accurate suggestions based on the user’s exact location.

Address lookup using Google Places API. (Image: Chromatic HQ) (Large preview)

Using location services, it’s also possible to provide smart defaults. For example, for a “Find a flight” form, it’s possible to prefill the “From” field with the nearest airport to the user based on the user’s geolocation.

Biometric Authorization

The biggest problem of using a text password today is that most people forget passwords. 82% of people can’t remember their passwords, and 5 to 10% of sessions require users to reset a password. Password recovery is a big deal in e-commerce. 75% of users wouldn’t complete a purchase if they had to attempt to recover their password while checking out.

The future of passwords is no passwords. Even today, mobile developers can take advantage of biometric technologies. Users shouldn’t need to type a password; they should be able to use biometric readers for authentication — signing in using a fingerprint or face scanning.


eBay took advantage of the biometrics functionality on smartphones. Users can use their thumbprint to login into their eBay account.


eBay took advantage of the biometrics functionality on smartphones. Users can use their thumbprint to login into their eBay account. (Large preview)

Camera

If your form asks users to provide credit card details or information from their driver’s license, it’s possible to simplify the process of data input by using the camera as a scanner. Provide an option to take a photo of the card and fill out all details automatically.

Let users scan their identity card, instead of having to fill out their credit card information manually. (Image: blinkid)

But remember that no matter how good your app fills out the fields, it’s essential to leave them available for editing. Users should be able to modify the fields whenever they want.

Voice

Voice-controlled devices, such as Apple HomePod, Google Home and Amazon Echo, are actively encroaching on the market. The number of people who prefer to use voice for common operations has grown significantly. According to ComScore, 50% of all searches will be voice searches by 2020.




How people in the US use smart speakers (according to comScore) (Large preview)

As users get more comfortable and confident using voice commands, they will become an expected feature of mobile interactions. Voice input provides a lot of advantages for mobile users — it’s especially valuable in situations when users can’t focus on a screen, for example, while driving a car.

When designing a form, you can provide voice input as an alternative method of data input.




Google Translate provides an option to enter the text for translation using voice. (Large preview)

Field Labels

Write Clear And Concise Labels

The label is the text that tells users what data is expected from them in a particular input field. Writing clear labels is one of the best ways to make a form more accessible. Labels should help the user understand what information is required at a glance.

Avoid using complete sentences to explain. A label is not help text. Write succinct and crisp labels (a word or two), so that users can quickly scan your form.

Place The Label And Input Close Together

Put each label close to the input field, because the eye will visually know they’re tied together.


A label and its field should be visually grouped, so that users can understand which label belongs to which field.


A label and its field should be visually grouped, so that users can understand which label belongs to which field. (Large preview)

Don’t Use Disappearing Placeholder Text As Labels

While inline labels look good and save valuable screen estate, these benefits are far outweighed by the significant usability drawbacks, the most critical of which is the loss of context. When users start entering text in a field, the placeholder text disappears and forces people to recall this information. While it might not be a problem for simple two-field forms, it could be a big deal for forms that have a lot of fields (say, 7 to 10). It would be tough for users to recall all field labels after inputting data. Not surprisingly, user testing continually shows that placeholders in form fields often hurt usability more than help.


Don’t use placeholder text that disappears when the user interacts with the field.


Don’t use placeholder text that disappears when the user interacts with the field. (Large preview)

There’s a simple solution to the problem of disappearing placeholders: the floating (or adaptive) label. After the user taps on the field with the label placeholder, the label doesn’t disappear, it moves up to the top of the field and makes room for the user to enter their data.

Floating labels assure the user that they’ve filled out the fields correctly. (Image: Matt D. Smith)

Top-Align Labels

Putting field labels above the fields in a form improves the way users scan the form. Using eye-tracking technology for this, Google showed that users need fewer fixations, less fixation time and fewer saccades before submitting a form.

Another important advantage of top-aligned labels is that they provide more space for labels. Long labels and localized versions will fit more easily in the layout. The latter is especially suitable for small mobile screens. You can have form fields extend the full width of the screen, making them large enough to display the user’s entire input.




(Large preview)

Sentence Case Vs. Title Case

There are two general ways to capitalize words:

  • Title case: Capitalize every word. “This Is Title Case.”
  • Sentence case: Capitalize the first word. “This is sentence case.”

Using sentence case for labels has one advantage over title case: It is slightly easier (and, thus, faster) to read. While the difference for short labels is negligible (there’s not much difference between “Full Name” and “Full name”), for longer labels, sentence case is better. Now You Know How Difficult It Is to Read Long Text in Title Case.

Avoid Using Caps For Labels

All-caps text  —  meaning text with all of the letters cap­i­tal­ized  —  is OK in contexts that don’t involve substantive reading (such as acronyms and logos), but avoid all caps otherwise. As mentioned by Miles Tinker in his work Legibility of Print, all-capital print dramatically slows the speed of scanning and reading compared to lowercase type.


All-capitalized letters


All-capitalized letters are hard to scan and read. (Large preview)

Layout

You know by now that users scan web pages, rather than read them. The same goes for filling out forms. That’s why designers should design a form that is easy to scan. Allowing for efficient, effective scanning is crucial to making the process of the filling out a form as quick as possible.

Use A Single-Column Layout

A study by CXL Institute found that single-column forms are faster to complete than multi-column forms. In that study, test participants were able to complete a single-column form an average of 15.4 seconds faster than a multi-column form.

Multiple columns disrupt a user’s vertical momentum; with multiple columns, the eyes start zigzagging. This dramatically increases the number of eye fixations and, as a result, the completion time. Moreover, multiple-column forms might raise unnecessary questions in the user, like “Where should I begin?” and “Are questions in the right column equal in importance to questions in the left one?”

In a one-column design, the eyes move in a natural direction, from top to bottom, one line at a time. This helps to set a clear path for the user. One column is excellent for mobile because the screens are longer vertically, and vertical scrolling is a natural motion for mobile users.

There are some exceptions to this rule. It’s possible to place short and logically related fields on the same row (such as for the city and area code).




If a form has horizontally adjacent fields, the user has to scan the form following a Z pattern. When the eyes start zigzagging, it slows the speed of comprehension and increases completion time. (Large preview)




(Large preview)

Create A Flow With Your Questions

The way you ask questions also matters. Questions should be asked logically from the user’s perspective, not according to the application or database’s logic, because it will help to create a sense of conversation with the user. For example, if you design a checkout form and asks for details such as full name, phone number and credit card, the first question should be for the full name. Changing the order (for example, starting with a phone number instead of a name) leads to discomfort. In real-world conversations, it would be unusual to ask for someone’s phone number before asking their name.

Defer In-Depth Questions To The End

When it comes to designing a flow for questions you want to ask, think about prioritization. Follow the rule “easy before difficult” and place in-depth or personal questions last. This eases users into the process; they will be more likely to answer complex and more intrusive questions once they’ve established a rapport. This has a scientific basis: Robert Cialdini’s principle of consistency stipulates that when someone takes a small action or step towards something, they feel more compelled to finish.

Group Related Fields Together

One of the principles of Gestalt psychology, the principle of proximity, states that related elements should be near each other. This principle can be applied to the order of questions in a form. The more related questions are, the closer they should be to each other.

Designers can group related fields into sections. If your form has more than six questions, group related questions into logical sections. Don’t forget to provide a good amount of white space between sections to distinguish them visually.




Generally, if your form has more than six questions, it’s better to group related questions into logical sections. Put things together that make sense together. (Large preview)

Make A Long Form Look Simpler

How do you design a form that asks users a lot of questions? Of course, you could put all of the questions on one screen. But this hinder your completion rate. If users don’t have enough motivation to complete a form, the form’s complexity could scare them away. The first impression plays a vital role. Generally, the longer or more complicated a form seems, the less likely users will be to start filling in the blanks.

Minimize the number of fields visible at one time. This creates the perception that the form is shorter than it really is.

There are two techniques to do this.

Progressive Disclosure

Progressive disclosure is all about giving users the right thing at the right time. The goal is to find the right stuff to put on the small screen at the right time:

  • Initially, show users only a few of the most important options.
  • Reveal parts of your form as the user interacts with it.
Using progressive disclosure to reduce cognitive load and keep the user focused on a task. (Image: Ramotion)
Chunking

Chunking entails breaking a long form into steps. It’s possible to increase the completion rate by splitting a form into a few steps. Chunking can also help users process, understand and remember information. When designing multi-step forms, always inform users of their progress with a completeness meter.




Progress tracker for e-commerce form. (Image: Murat Mutlu) (Large preview)

Designers can use either a progress tracker (as shown in the example above) or a “Step # out of #” indicator both to tell how many steps there are total and to show how far along the user is at the moment. The latter approach could be great for mobile forms because step indication doesn’t take up much space.

Action Buttons

A button is an interactive element that direct users to take an action.

Make Action Buttons Descriptive

A button’s label should explain what the button does; users should be able to understand what happens after a tap just by looking at the button. Avoid generic labels such as “Submit” and “Send”, using instead labels that describe the action.




Label should help users finish the sentence, ‘I want to…’ For example, if it’s a form to create an account, the call to action could be ‘Create an account’. (Large preview)

Don’t Use Clear Or Reset Buttons

Clear or reset buttons allow users to erase their data in a form. These buttons almost never help users and often hurt them. The risk of deleting all of the information a user has entered outweighs the small benefit of having to start again. If a user fills in a form and accidentally hits the wrong button, there’s a good chance they won’t start over.

Use Different Styles For Primary And Secondary Buttons

Avoid secondary actions if possible. But if your form has two calls to action (for example, an e-commerce form that has “Apply discount” and “Submit order”) buttons, ensure a clear visual distinction between the primary and secondary actions. Visually prioritize the primary action by adding more visual weight to the button. This will prevent users from tapping on the wrong button.




Ensure a clear visual distinction between primary and secondary buttons. (Large preview)

Design Finger-Friendly Touch Targets

Tiny touch targets create a horrible user experience because they make it challenging for users to interact with interactive objects. It’s vital to design finger-friendly touch targets: bigger input fields and buttons.

The image below shows that the width of the average adult finger is about 11 mm.




People often blame themselves for having “fat fingers”. But even baby fingers are wider than most touch targets. (Image: Microsoft) (Large preview)

According to material design guidelines, touch targets should be at least 48 × 48 DP. A touch target of this size results in a physical size of about 9 mm, regardless of screen size. It might be appropriate to use larger touch targets to accommodate a wider spectrum of users.

Not only is target size important, but sufficient space between touch targets matters, too. The main reason to maintain a safe distance between touch targets is to prevent users from touching the wrong button and invoking the wrong action. The distance between buttons becomes extremely important when binary choices such as “Agree” and “Disagree” are located right next to each other. Material design guidelines recommend separating touch targets with 8 DP of space or more, which will create balanced information density and usability.




(Large preview)

Disable Buttons After Tap

Forms actions commonly require some time to be processed. For example, data calculation might be required after a submission. It’s essential not only to provide feedback when an action is in progress, but also to disable the submit button to prevent users from accidentally tapping the button again. This is especially important for e-commerce websites and apps. By disabling the button, you not only prevent duplicate submissions, which can happen by accident, but you also provide a valuable acknowledgment to users (users will know that the system has received their submission).

This form disables the button after submission. (Image: Michaël Villar)

Assistance And Support

Provide Success State

Upon successful completion of a form, it’s critical to notify users about that. It’s possible to provide this information in the context of an existing form (for example, showing a green checkmark above the refreshed form) or to direct users to a new page that communicates that their submission has been successful.

Example of success state. (Image: João Oliveira Simões)

Errors And Validation

Users will make mistakes. It’s inevitable. It’s essential to design a user interface that supports users in those moments of failures.

While the topic of errors and validation deserves its own article, it’s still worth mentioning a few things that should be done to improve the user experience of mobile forms.

Use Input Constraints for Each Field

Prevention is better than a cure. If you’re a seasoned designer, you should be familiar with the most common cases that can lead to an error state (error-prone conditions). For example, it’s usually hard to correctly fill out a form on the first attempt, or to properly sync data when the mobile device has a poor network connection. Take these cases into account to minimize the possibility of errors. In other words, it’s better to prevent users from making errors in the first place by utilizing constraints and offering suggestions.

For instance, if you design a form that allows people to search for a hotel reservation, you should prevent users from selecting check-in dates that are in the past. As shown in the Booking.com example below, you can simply use a date selector that allows users only to choose today’s date or a date in the future. Such a selector would force users to pick a date range that fits.




You can significantly decrease the number of mistakes or incorrectly inputted data by putting constraints on what can be inputted in the field. The date picker in Booking.com’s app displays a full monthly calendar but makes past dates unavailable for selection. (Large preview)

Don’t Make Data Validation Rules Too Strict

While there might be cases where it’s essential to use strict validation rules, in most cases, strict validation is a sign of lazy programming. Showing errors on the screen when the user provides data in a slightly different format than expected creates unnecessary friction. And this would have a negative impact on conversions.

It’s very common for a few variations of an answer to a question to be possible; for example, when a form asks users to provide information about their state, and a user responds by typing their state’s abbreviation instead of the full name (for example, CA instead of California). The form should accept both formats, and it’s the developer job to convert the data into a consistent format.

Clear Error Message

When you write error messages, focus on minimizing the frustration users feel when they face a problem in interacting with a form. Here are a few rules on writing effective error messages:

  • Never blame the user.
    The way you deliver an error message can have a tremendous impact on how users perceive it. An error message like, “You’ve entered a wrong number” puts all of the blame on the user; as a result, the user might get frustrated and abandon the app. Write copy that sounds neutral or positive. A neutral message sounds like, “That number is incorrect.”
  • Avoid vague or general error messages.
    Messages like “Something went wrong. Please, try again later” don’t say much to users. Users will wonder what exactly went wrong. Always try to explain the root cause of a problem. Make sure users know how to fix errors.
  • Make error messages human-readable.
    Error messages like “User input error: 0x100999” are cryptic and scary. Write like a human, not like a robot. Use human language, and explain what exactly the user or system did wrong, and what exactly the user should do to fix the problem.
Display Errors Inline

When it comes to displaying error messages, designers opt for one of two locations: at the top of the form or inline. The first option can make for a bad experience. Javier Bargas-Avila and Glenn Oberholzer conducted research on online form validation and discovered that displaying all error messages at the top of the form puts a high cognitive load on user memory. Users need to spend extra time matching error messages with the fields that require attention.




Avoid displaying errors at the top of the form. (Image: John Lewis) (Large preview)

It’s much better to position error messages inline. First, this placement corresponds with the user’s natural top-to-bottom reading flow. Secondly, the errors will appear in the context of the user’s input.


eBay uses inline validation.


eBay uses inline validation. (Large preview)

Use Dynamic Validation

The time at which you choose to display an error message is vital. Seeing an error message only after pressing the submit button might frustrate users. Don’t wait until users finish the form; provide feedback as data is being entered.

Use inline validation with real-time feedback. This validation instantly tells people whether the information they’ve typed is compatible with the form’s requirements. In 2009, Luke Wroblewski tested inline validation against post-submission validation and found the following results for the inline version:

  • 22% increase in success rate,
  • 22% decrease in errors made,
  • 31% increase in satisfaction rating,
  • 42% decrease in completion times,
  • 47% decrease in the number of eye fixations.

But inline validation should be implemented carefully:

  • Avoid showing inline validation on focus.
    In this case, as soon as the user taps a field, they see an error message. The error appears even when the field is completely empty. When an error message is shown on focus, it might look like the form is yelling at the user before they’ve even started filling it out.
  • Don’t validate after each character typed.
    This approach not only increases the number of unnecessary validation attempts, but it also frustrates users (because users will likely see error messages before they have completed the field). Ideally, inline validation messages should appear around 500 to 1000 milliseconds after the user has stopped typing or after they’ve moved to the next field. This rule has a few exceptions: It’s helpful to validate inline as the user is typing when creating a password (to check whether the password meets complexity requirements), when creating a user name (to check whether a name is available) and when typing a message with a character limit.
Reward early, punish late is a solid validation  approach. (Image: Mihael Konjević)

Accessibility

Users of all abilities should be able to access and enjoy digital products. Designers should strive to incorporate accessibility needs as much as they can when building a product. Here are a few things you can do to make your forms more accessible.

Ensure The Form Has Proper Contrast

Your users will likely interact with your form outdoors. Ensure that it is easy to use both in sun glare and in low-light environments. Check the contrast ratio of fields and labels in your form. The W3C recommends the following contrast ratios for body text:

  • Small text should have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 against its background.
  • Large text (at 14-point bold, 18-point regular and up) should have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 against its background.

Measuring color contrast can seem overwhelming. Fortunately, some tools make the process simple. One of them is Web AIM Color Contrast Checker, which helps designers to measure contrast levels.

Do Not Rely On Color Alone To Communicate Status

Color blindness (or color vision deficiency) affects approximately 1 in 12 men (8%) and 1 in 200 women in the world. While there are many types of color blindness, the most common two are protanomaly, or reduced sensitivity to red light, and deuteranomaly, or reduced sensitivity to green light. When displaying validation errors or success messages, don’t rely on color alone to communicate the status (i.e. by making input fields green or red). As the W3C guidelines state, color shouldn’t be used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response or distinguishing a visual element. Designers should use color to highlight or complement what is already visible. Support colorblind people by providing additional visual cues that help them understand the user interface.


Use icons and supportive text to show which fields are invalid. This will help colorblind people fix the problems.


Use icons and supportive text to show which fields are invalid. This will help colorblind people fix the problems. (Large preview)

Allow Users To Control Font Size

Allow users to increase font size to improve readability. Mobile devices and browsers include features to enable users to adjust the font size system-wide. Also, make sure that your form has allotted enough space for large font sizes.


WhatsApp provides an option to change the font size in the app’s settings


WhatsApp provides an option to change the font size in the app’s settings. (Large preview)

Test Your Design Decisions

All points mentioned above can be considered as industry best practices. But just because something is called a “best practice” doesn’t mean it is always the optimal solution for your form. Apps and websites largely depend on the context in which they are used. Thus, it’s always essential to test your design decisions; make sure that the process of filling out a form is smooth, that the flow is not disrupted and that users can solve any problems they face along the way. Conduct usability testing sessions on a regular basis, collect all valuable data about user interactions, and learn from it.

Conclusion

Users can be hesitant to fill out forms. So, our goal as designers is to make the process of filling out a form as easy as possible. When designing a form, strive to create fast and frictionless interactions. Sometimes a minor change — such as properly writing an error message — can significantly increase the form’s usability.

his article is part of the UX design series sponsored by Adobe. Adobe XD tool is made for a fast and fluid UX design process, as it lets you go from idea to prototype faster. Design, prototype and share — all in one app. You can check out more inspiring projects created with Adobe XD on Behance, and also sign up for the Adobe experience design newsletter to stay updated and informed on the latest trends and insights for UX/UI design.

Smashing Editorial
(al, yk, il)


Excerpt from: 

Best Practices For Mobile Form Design

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Making Distributed Product Teams Work More Efficiently With monday.com




Making Distributed Product Teams Work More Efficiently With monday.com

Nick Babich



(This is a sponsored article.) The way that product teams work is changing: The software industry is quickly moving to remote work. In the US alone, 43% of employed Americans have spent at least some time working remotely, and that number has steadily increased in recent years. Many successful digital products on the market today were designed and developed by a distributed team. Such teams don’t have an office in the traditional sense. Everyone chooses to work from where they like, both geographically and functionally (in a coworking space, coffee shop, home office, etc.).

While a distributed product team might sound tempting to you, creating an effective design process on such a team requires a lot of effort. Collaboration and communication are two of the most significant challenges distributed teams face. Managing a distributed team requires an understanding of how the individuals on your team operate, as well as requires a digital toolset that makes the team’s operations as efficient as possible. That’s why investing in the right remote tools and technology is so critical for product managers.

If you’re a team manager who is looking to establish a robust design process for a distributed team, then this article for you. You’ll find seven of the most common challenges distributed product teams should overcome and learn how a team-management tool called monday.com (formerly dapulse) can help them with that.

1. Build A Shared Understanding Of A Project’s Goals

When it comes to organizing a work process on a remote team, one of the key goals is to keep the whole team on the same page. Management needs to set goals and make sure everyone on the team understands and accepts them. Building understanding is especially important on remote teams because interaction tend to be more sporadic. Ensure that everyone on the team knows the following:

  • What are the project’s overall goals? When a team clearly understand’s the product strategy (what they want to build and why), that understanding motivates engagement.

  • What is expected of them, and how do they fit in the bigger picture? People want to know their role in the process. Even though every team member will be deep in the details when working on a project, understanding the big picture will help them to focus on what’s really important.

  • What are other people involved in the project doing? Each team member should have visibility on what the other team members are working on.

The more everyone knows, the better they can work as a team.

Visualize The Product Development Process

Helping everyone on the team know what is expected of them and when is possible using monday.com’s feature named the “timeline.” The timeline makes tasks more visual — team members will be able to see when each task is scheduled for, how long it will take and how it fits in the entire project. The tool enables you to see not only what tasks your team members are working on, but also how those tasks are distributed over time. It is great for when some activities depend on others (for example, developers are waiting on mockups from designers).


The timeline enables team members to see a high-level roadmap.


The timeline enables team members to see a high-level roadmap. (Large preview)

2. Manage The Team’s Workload

As anyone who has ever worked on a remote team will tell you, remote working is quite different from working face to face. Many project managers find it hard to manage the team’s workload.

Most product teams use project-tracking software to plan and estimate their work. Usually, a team will prepare all of the work in a task list, in which each task has a text description and a time estimate. The biggest downside of this approach is that it’s not very representative. For example, Kanban boards, used by many product teams today, are not very representative — it’s almost impossible from a glance at the board to understand the order in which tasks should be completed, especially when they have dependencies.


Using a Kanban board might make it hard to see how tasks should be distributed in time.


Using a Kanban board might make it hard to see how tasks should be distributed in time. (Image source) (Large preview)

Track Everything Your Team Is Working On

Interaction cost (i.e. the cognitive or physical effort required to complete an action) plays a vital role in the user experience of a product. The more effort required to complete an operation, the less usable the interface becomes for the end user. If the project manager has to switch to different products to see the team’s progress, that will create unnecessary friction and hinder the team from working efficiently.

monday.com assembles and displays progress data in a logical and understandable way. The tool has a feature called a board. The board is where all team members can track everything the team is working on. The main advantage of the board is that it enables product managers to monitor the team’s progress in real time and instantly see who is working on what and see where things stand.


monday.com gives you a clear sense of what needs to get done and who is responsible for what. The board provides in-depth insight into a project and its tasks.


monday.com gives you a clear sense of what needs to get done and who is responsible for what. The board provides in-depth insight into a project and its tasks. (Large preview)

Communicate Current Status

Each team needs a mechanism that makes it easy to understand what’s going on at a glance.

One way to solve this problem is to use color coding for different elements. Color coding speeds up visual search because it allows users to quickly filter a particular object (or objects) by knowing the color associated with it. monday.com uses color coding to indicate the current status of a task. For example, it’s easy to see where things have gotten stuck just by looking at the board and finding all tasks colored in red.


Status updates can be color coded.


Status updates can be color coded. (Large preview)

Create, Modify And Assign Tasks In A Few Clicks

Adding tasks in a project-management tool doesn’t sound very exciting. Generally, the more time it takes, the less happy the product manager will be.

monday.com simplifies the process of data input. Managers can quickly add rows to the board — monday.com calls them pulses. Pulses can be tasks, projects, missions, to-do items, etc. Creating a pulse requires just a few clicks.


Monday.com simplifies the process of data input. Managers can quickly add rows to the board — Monday.com calls them pulses. Pulses can be tasks, projects, missions, to-do items, etc. Creating a pulse requires just a few clicks.


(Large preview)

After you create a pulse, simply assign it to a team member.


Assign teammates to particular tasks or projects.


Assign teammates to particular tasks or projects. (Large preview)

Tailor The Platform To Your Needs

There’s no such thing as a universal design process. Every project is different and requires its own design process. A product-management tool should be very adaptive to change; the product team should be able to customize the process according to their needs, without having to put much effort into customization.

monday.com is extremely customizable and lets the user configure almost any option. You can customize monday.com to manage any workflow or process, to address any challenge and to manage basically anything.

When it comes to creating a board, you don’t need to start from scratch. A multitude of templates allow you to start quickly. For example, the “Team Tasks” template would be very useful for product teams.


Finding the right template for your activity is really simple because all templates are visualized.


Finding the right template for your activity is really simple because all templates are visualized. (Large preview)

After selecting a template for your needs, you can customize it by manipulating different sections. Product teams often need to combine task into groups, whereby each group represents a milestone (for example, “Release 1”, “Release 2”, etc.). Doing this in monday.com is relatively simple. As a board owner, you can have as many groups as you want.


Easy to organize tasks. You can have as many groups as you want.


Easy to organize tasks. You can have as many groups as you want. (Large preview)

But it doesn’t stop there. You can use the checklist feature to break down tasks even further. For example, each task can be broken down into smaller to-do steps. This feature is handy when a few activities need to get done before the task can be completed — for example, if a product specification needs to be approved by a few designers before it can be handed over to the development team. The checklist sits within a pulse, in the “Updates” section, and can help create a structure for each pulse.

The checklist sits within a pulse, in the “Updates” section. This feature can help create a structure for each pulse.
The checklist sits within a pulse, in the “Updates” section. This feature can help create a structure for each pulse. (Large preview)

Plan The Team’s Workload Visually

Designers, developers and managers often work with compressed timeframes and simultaneous projects. A team must be able to respond quickly to feedback on their product from stakeholders and users. Following the build-measure-learn cycle, a product team should be really flexible; it should be ready to implement feedback from testing sessions and adjust the design process according to the new information. The same level of flexibility should be in all products the team uses.

Using monday.com’s timeline, it’s possible to make corrections and improve the team’s efficiency. The visual editor makes the process of managing tasks easy. The product manager can see where each project is at each point, and can see and focus on areas of struggle, quickly and effectively.

The timeline makes it possible to see each team member’s capacity over a set period of time (say, the next few weeks), seeing where they have room to take on more work and where they need to delegate tasks to others.

Change the time range in the timeline. The time range is updated in real time.
Change the time range in the timeline. The time range is updated in real time. (Large preview)

3. Create Effective Internal Communications

Communication plays a critical role in the design process. When it comes to product design, it’s essential for all team members to be on the same page. Unlike colocated teams, a distributed team won’t have an opportunity to arrange regular face-to-face meetings. When you take out face-to-face interaction, you can’t expect things to just work the same way. Poorly established communication patterns can lead to some team members feeling like they’re working in a vacuum.

Tools matter more in remote work because they are the foundation for communication. The goal is to make sure everyone on the team feels connected.

Centralize All Communication

In today’s world, we communicate with a variety of tools: from traditional email to online messengers such as Skype, WhatsApp, Slack and Facebook Messenger. Having to switch from a task-management tool to another tool for communication can be stressful. Worse, some information can get lost during the transition (for example, an email inbox can fill up to the point that a team member can overlook a critical email).

Product teams can use monday.com as a single communication platform for their workplace. And it would be a much better solution because it allows for communication in the context of each task. With monday.com, you no longer need to use email for internal communication. When a team member clicks on a pulse on any board, a box opens to the right of the screen, showing the “updates”. Simply mention a person’s username (“@johndoe”), and send your message. The great thing is that the chat thread stays with that task, so finding a conversation after a while is relatively easy.

Cut Down On Meetings And Optimize Required Meetings

Meetings are an essential part of the communication process. When it comes to reviewing plans and brainstorming on design decisions, there’s no substitute for a meeting. But for a distributed team, the number of potential hours available for real-time meetings can be limited, so it’s essential to make the best use of that time. A distributed team should continually try to reduce their number of meetings and maximize the effectiveness of the time that team members have together.

Take a weekly kickoff meeting as an example. This meeting happens on a Monday, and team members come together to discuss plans for the week. For many teams, such meetings are rarely productive. Quite often, the information shared in a weekly kickoff meeting becomes outdated shortly after the meeting, and team members need to reprioritize tasks.

monday.com saves the team vast amounts of time in meetings. Instead of discussing the plan for the week, the product manager can break down complex tasks into weekly achievable goals. This will help team members plan the week based on what they need to get done.


Create a weekly task board.


Create a weekly task board. (Large preview)

Share Valuable Resources With The Entire Team, Not Individual Members

Imagine you’ve found a really valuable resource and want to share it with your peers. You tweet about it and send a link to a group chat. You get feedback like, “Awesome resource! Thanks!” from some people in the chat. Shortly after, most of your peers forget about the resource, especially if they can’t use it in the work they’re doing right now. Sad, right? We can do better.

Instead of sending a link to a group chat, share all resources you find on a separate board. monday.com has a template named “Design Inspiration & Resources”. The great thing about this approach is that it’ll be much easier for team members to find a particular resource when they actually need it.


Instead of sending a link to a group chat, share all resources you find on a separate board.


(Large preview)

Organize Better Planning And Brainstorming Sessions

Task prioritization is a typical activity in agile project management. Team members get together, discuss tasks and vote on what to implement in the next sprint.

monday.com incorporates voting. Team members can use the voting column when they want to decide on something together as a team. Simply add a voting column to a board, and team members will be able to cast their vote in one click.


Vote for ideas during brainstorming and planning sessions.


Vote for ideas during brainstorming and planning sessions. (Large preview)

Notify Team Members In Real Time

Fear of missing out (FOMO) is a common problem on distributed teams. When working remotely, team members might be afraid to miss an important piece of information. As a result, they spend a lot of time in communication tools, checking mail and messengers. This can get really distracting. Team members should spend less time in communication tools and more time in tools they use to design (tools for prototyping and development). It’s all too easy to waste the day reading messages and replying.

A communication tool should serve vital information just when team members need it; it should have an effective mechanism of notification. monday.com notifies users via desktop and mobile in real time. The platform has an app for iOS and Android. The app allows team members to stay connected on their phone or tablet and to respond quickly from anywhere. It’s also possible to customize notification rules. For example, you can manage which activity triggers an email.


Mention people or entire teams.


(Large preview)

Create A Work Schedule For Your Team

If your team is distributed across the globe and you need to arrange a meeting, you have to be sure that it won’t happen at awkward hours (such as in the middle of the night). It would be great to see the team members’ working hours.

The work schedule board is a cornerstone of your business operations. Team members in each time zone can commit to the times that work for them. This helps product managers schedule meetings at times that work for everybody.


The work schedule board shows when team members will be online and available for chat.


The work schedule board shows when team members will be online and available for chat. (Large preview)

4. Involve Users In The Design Process

Most commercially successful products were created with a strong focus on the target audience. Designers know that if they want to release a successful product, they need to introduce real users to the design process. User involvement is most efficient and influential in the early stages of product development, because the cost of making changes increases as the system develops. Generally, the earlier you create a strong feedback loop, the better the final product will be.

Share Designs With Users And Gather A Valuable Feedback

The feedback that a product team gets from users is extremely valuable. It can validate that the design team is moving in the right direction.

On monday.com, users can create a board and choose whom to share it with. For example, if you are working with a client, you can set up a board for their project and invite them to work as a guest. The board could include key features you want to work on. As soon as you share the board, the client will get a notification and then can open the board, review the plan and request modifications.

5. Find All Required Information Easily

Documentation is another challenge. Distributed teams don’t have a physically shared space where they can share product documentation. Information might be stored in many different places: email, cloud drives, local computers, etc. It could lead to team members missing an important piece of information and being unaware of it. This leads to fragmented knowledge.

Centralize All Documents

Having all documents in one place is critical to success. monday.com syncs all information in a single accessible hub. All team members can store all relevant discussions in a searchable database. The platform provides an option to upload different types of files simply by dragging and dropping. The next time a designer needs to share a product’s specifications, all they need to do is upload a file to the platform.


Upload all assets by dragging and dropping.


Upload all assets by dragging and dropping. (Large preview)

Search Anything And Everything

Anyone who has ever worked with a knowledge base will tell you how critical search functionality is. Without proper search, your chance of finding information decreases significantly.

monday.com allows you to quickly find anything your team has ever worked on, including images, updates, projects and assignments. Your work becomes a rich knowledge base.


monday.com allows you to quickly find anything your team has ever worked on, including images, updates, projects and assignments. Your work becomes a rich knowledge base.


(Large preview)

For example, when you need to find the latest version of a product’s specification, all you need to do is click the search box, select the “Files” tab and enter the project’s name as a search query.


When you need to find the latest version of a product’s specification, all you need to do is click the search box, select the ‘Files’ tab and enter the project’s name as a search query.


(Large preview)

6. Make The Collaboration Tool A Natural Part Of The Team

The platform you choose for team management should feel like second nature. Technology should work for you and your team, not the other way around.

Minimize The Time Required To Learn A Tool

When you introduce a new tool in the design process, one goal should be to have total agreement to work using this tool. This agreement is not always easy to come by because team members are usually skeptical about the next “magical tool that will solve all of their problems”. What’s worse is that they have to spend extra time learning how to use it. Nobody wants to learn new software.

One of the most significant advantages of monday.com is its intuitiveness. Regardless of whether you’ve used a similar app before, monday.com can be picked up with no training. Team members will be able to understand how to use the tool without preparation.


monday.com provides basic onboarding to help users get started.


monday.com provides basic onboarding to help users get started. (Large preview)

Scalable

When companies select a collaboration tool, they often think of it as an investment. They want a tool that will scale with the business.

monday.com is suitable for any sized team, from two freelancers working together to thousands collaborating across the globe. The tool scales with you, from simplicity to complexity, with total ease. Also, as your business expands, monday.com makes it painless to shift to a premium version (Standard, Pro or Enterprise) and get more of the platform’s premium features.

Integrate The Platform With Existing Tools

A task-management tool is essential for any team hoping for good results. But the team’s toolbox also needs to support the design process (for prototyping and development) and the collection of design artifacts (for example, on Google Drive or Dropbox). It’s essential that the team-management tool integrates seamlessly with other tools the team uses.

When it comes to integration, monday.com does a lot to be part of the established software ecosystem. It can connect to Dropbox, Zapier, Google Drive and other sharing tools. As a team member, you can attach a mockup file to your updates, sharing it in the context of the tasks it relates to.

monday.com also comes with an open API architecture, which lets developers build their own integrations.


Monday also comes with an open API architecture, which lets developers build their own integrations.


(Large preview)

7. Keep The Team Motivated

Having the right atmosphere is extremely important. Team leaders should not only be in tune with each person on the team, but should continually look for ways to increase engagement.

Celebrate Successes With Team Members

It’s natural for people to seek acknowledgment. The need for social approval drives us to look for confirmation from people we know (parents, friends, colleagues). When someone recognizes our results by saying something as simple as “Great job!”, we feel motivated to work towards our goals. It’s essential for team players to get acknowledged, especially when working remotely.

monday.com has a few features that help create a sense of acknowledgment. The first one is the thumb-up feature, which is basically a positive reaction to an activity. Most people are familiar with this from social networks. People are used to measuring the effect of a post by the number of likes they get. monday.com allows you to give a thumb up to your teammates’ work.


Monday has a few features that help create a sense of acknowledgment.


(Large preview)

Another nice feature are the animated GIFs. You can liven up comments with GIFs. monday.com lets you pick from thousands of GIFs when responding to teammates, which will add a bit of personality to your comments.

You can liven up comments with GIFs. Monday lets you pick from thousands of GIFs when responding to teammates, which will add a bit of personality to your comments.
(Large preview)

Last but not least, monday.com has a confetti feature. As soon as a designer completes their last “in progress” task on a board, they will see an animated confetti effect. This subtle detail adds a bit of delight and motivates team members to have an all-green board.

Monday has a confetti feature
(Large preview)

Conclusion

Establishing an effective process on a distributed team is hard. What works for a colocated team won’t necessarily work for a distributed team, and what works for one distributed team won’t necessarily work for another.

Build a remote-friendly work culture by focusing on following priorities:

  • Prioritize transparency.
    Keep important information accessible to everyone.

  • Stay on top of the team’s activity.
    Understand what every member of your team is doing and where the team is in the process at a glance.

  • Build an effective communication system.
    The foundation of distributed teams is communication. Create a healthy system of meetings and habits to keep people communicating.

  • Lower the barrier to entry.
    Choose a team-collaboration tool that will be the least painful for everyone to get on board with. It should be a reference point that brings everything together.

Smashing Editorial
(ms, ra, il, al)


Continue reading here:

Making Distributed Product Teams Work More Efficiently With monday.com

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What Is the Best Heatmap Tool and How to Use It to Get Better Results

heatmap-tool

A heatmap tool allows you to unlock the secrets behind your website users’ behavior. You’ve heard your friends and associates talking about using a heatmap tool to improve their website conversions and sales. Maybe you’ve even done a little research on the subject. But why exactly do you need a heatmap tool? And what does it do? You have questions. I have answers. Here’s the thing: User behavior reports like heatmaps give you information about your target audience that you can’t get anywhere else. Therein lies the value. Without heatmaps, you’re in the dark. So how do you see the…

The post What Is the Best Heatmap Tool and How to Use It to Get Better Results appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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What Is the Best Heatmap Tool and How to Use It to Get Better Results

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So You Want to Persuade Users? Make Things Simple!




So You Want to Persuade Users? Make Things Simple!

Lyndon Cerejo



(This article is kindly sponsored by Adobe.) The persuasive design toolbox is filled with powerful tools based on psychology. These tools range from Cialdini’s set of six principles of persuasion to ten times that number of Persuasive Patterns. Presented with all these methods, it can be tempting to use all of them to cover all possible bases, using a shotgun approach, hoping that one will resonate with your target users.

However, applying persuasion principles and patterns in a haphazard manner just ends up being persuasive design clutter. Like user experience design, designing for everyone is designing for no one. Randomly thrown together persuasive techniques will also make users feel manipulated, not in control, making them abandon the site or experience. The key to persuading your users is to keep it simple: using focused persuasive techniques and tactics that will work for your users.

Persuasion Funnel

AIDA is an acronym used in marketing and advertising to describe the stages that a customer goes through in the purchase process. The stages of Attention, Interest, Desire and Action, generically follow a series of cognitive (thinking) and affective (feeling) stages culminating in a behavioral (doing e.g. purchase or trial) stage. This should sound familiar since this is what we do through design, especially persuasive design.

When it comes to persuasive design, users go through a few stages between Awareness and Action, and the design should guide them from one stage to the next. I don’t have a clever acronym for it (yet), but the stages the design has to take the users through are:

  • Awareness
  • Relevant
  • Credible
  • Usable
  • Desirable
  • Persuasive
  • Action



(Large preview)

When users are contemplating an action (like booking a hotel room), they have to be aware of your site, app, or experience. Once they begin their journey on your site, they quickly evaluate the experience and either proceed to the next step or leave and go elsewhere. With fewer users continuing to subsequent stages, the number of users at each stage begins to resemble the shape of a funnel as shown above.

Let’s peek inside what could be going on in hypothetical users’ minds as they go through the experience of booking a hotel room for New Year’s Eve in Times Square, and some of the reasons they may drop off in each stage.

Awareness

“Hmmm… Where do I start? Hotel chains promise the lowest rate if we book directly with them, but I won’t be able to see other hotel options around Times Square. Hotel… Maybe I should try an online travel agency like Trivago (looks like the Trivago guy / Trivago girl advertising works!) to find a wider range of hotels. I’m going to also quickly Google it to see if there are other options.”

Users have to be aware of your site, app or experience to use it — Duh!

Relevant

“I found HotelTonight on Google. It looks like a great way to get rooms last minute, but not this far in advance — it’s not relevant to me.”

If your experience is not relevant to the task they are trying to accomplish, users will leave and try elsewhere. If your products or services are relevant, but not findable by the user, work on your navigation, search, and content layout to ensure your products and services are visible. Everything does not have to be one click away, but if the user gets the scent of information, or cues that make them think they are on the right path, they will follow the trail to that information.

Credible

“This design looks like it hasn’t been updated since the [GeoCities era](http://www.arngren.net/).

— Warning bells go off in head —

I’m out of here.”

Users are aware of many of the risks available online and look for trust indicators including a known brand and domain, secure site, professional design, real-world contact information and third-party certificates or badges. Incorporate these elements to create a comfort level for the user.

Usable

“I can’t figure out where things are in the navigation, and the search results had hundreds of unhelpful results. The homepage has nice big images, but that meant I had to scroll before I could see any real content.”

Usability is surprisingly still an issue with many sites. Follow User Experience best practices during design, and test with users to validate that the design is usable.

Desirable

“This reminds me of Craigslist — it is usable, but the design does not make me want to stay and use it. I’ll try that other hotel website that provides an immersive, interactive experience as I search for hotels.”

As much as we like to believe it, users’ decisions are not always rational, and very often driven by emotion, and we can address that through design. Usability is about making it work well; this is about making it beautiful as well.

In his book Emotional Design, Don Norman explains: “Attractive things do work better — their attractiveness produces positive emotions, causing mental processes to be more creative, more tolerant of minor difficulties.” Don talks about the three different aspects of design: visceral, behavioral, and reflective. Visceral design is about appearance, behavioral about the pleasure and effectiveness of use, and reflective design involves the rationalization and intellectualization of a product.

Persuasive

“Oh, Wow! That’s a long list of hotels, with plenty of availability for New Year’s Eve. There’s no real reason to book now. I’ll just come back to book after Thanksgiving…”

The user was interested, able, and willing, but the design did not motivate him to take intended action. Use relevant persuasion techniques that apply to your user to move them toward the desired action.


Examples of persuasive methods while shopping on Travelocity for a hotel room for New Year’s Eve.


Examples of persuasive methods while shopping on Travelocity for a hotel room for New Year’s Eve. (Large preview)

Action

“Oh, Wow! 65% of hotels are already booked in this area for New Year’s Eve. I better make a reservation now. . This looks like a nice hotel, and it also offers free cancellation – I’m reserving it now!”

The user who made it to this stage was interested, able, and willing, and the design nudged him to take intended action of making a reservation before leaving the site.

Persuasion is not about applying all available principles and patterns to your designs, but systematically identifying how you can address users’ barriers and motivators during each step of the journey, and guiding your users through the funnel to take the desired action.

The KISS Approach

Most of us are familiar with the acronym KISS: “Keep It Simple, Stupid,” a principle advocating simplicity as a key goal in design by avoiding unnecessary complexity. Let’s borrow that acronym for a 4-step approach to persuasive design.

Know The Right Behavior To Target

The first step is knowing the behavior you would like to target, and identifying the simplest action that can lead to that behavior change. Take the example of term life insurance companies who, to put it very bluntly, stand to benefit if their policyholders are healthy and don’t die while the policy is active. While those companies have a long-term ambitious goal of helping their policyholders lead healthy lives (mutually beneficial), that could be broken down into a simpler target behavior of walking 10,000 steps daily. This behavior is simple to understand, achieve, measure, and contributes to the long-term goal of healthier policyholders.

One such insurance company is offering new policyholders the latest Apple Watch for a low initial down payment ($25). The ongoing monthly payments can be waived each month that the policyholder leads an active lifestyle and exercises regularly (e.g. walks about 10,000 steps a day). About half the people who participated have achieved monthly goals, despite potential privacy implications.


John Hancock Term Life Insurance Apple Watch offer targets walking about 10,000 steps a day.


John Hancock Term Life Insurance Apple Watch offer targets walking about 10,000 steps a day. (Large preview)

Identify Barriers And Motivators

User research for persuasive design digs below the surface thinking level to the feeling level, and moves beyond the rational to the emotional level, as shown below. Getting to know your users at a deeper level will help you use psychology to focus your design to get users to engage in the target behavior identified above. User interviews that focus on users’ feelings and emotions are used to uncover barriers and motivators they consciously or subconsciously face while trying to achieve the target behavior. This helps us identify which blocks we need to weaken, and which motivators we should strengthen, through persuasive design techniques and tactics.


Tip of the iceberg user research diagram


(Large preview)

Simplify The Experience

Simplify the design experience of the first stages of the funnel, as users go through the mental verifications of relevancy, credibility, and usability of the experience. This includes making it easy for the user to find what they are looking for, credibility indicators like professional design, contact information, and third-party certificates or badges, as well as addressing usability issues. As Steve Krug put it very succinctly: “Don’t Make Me Think”.

Select Appropriate Triggers

Users who have made it this far in the process are interested in something you have to offer. As a designer, you have to nudge them to take the desired action. A good starting point is Robert Cialdini’s, six key principles of persuasion:

  1. Reciprocity
    People are obliged to give something back in exchange for receiving something.
  2. Scarcity
    People want more of those things they can have less of.
  3. Authority
    People follow the lead of credible, knowledgeable experts.
  4. Consistency
    People like to be consistent with the things they have previously said or done.
  5. Liking
    People prefer to say yes to those that they like.
  6. Consensus (Social Proof)
    Especially when they are uncertain, people will look to the actions and behaviors of others to determine their own.

These principles can be applied through dozens of different persuasive design patterns and methods, some of which have been previously published on Smashing Magazine (patterns, triggers), or in the books listed in the resources at the end. As you may notice, many persuasive patterns are related to UI patterns, because part of persuasion is reducing friction and simplifying what the user needs to do at any given point in time. For example, the persuasive pattern of Limited Choice can be realized through UI Pattern of Progressive Disclosure.

Given that there are dozens of patterns and methods (depending on where you look), it is important to selectively use methods that will resonate with your users. Applying all design patterns in the hope of some working will result in persuasion clutter and overwhelm the user, possibly driving them away from your site.

Examining Persuasion

Let’s take a closer look at the earlier example of the term life insurance through the eyes of someone who is motivated (shopping for life insurance) and has the ability (to pay monthly life insurance cost). Like me, let’s assume that this user was made aware of this through a sponsored post on Facebook. During the stages of awareness and relevance, there are a few persuasive triggers as shown below that make the user click “Learn More”.


facebook


(Large preview)

Clicking the “Learn More” button takes the user to a landing page that we will examine in sections for a persuasive flow:




(Large preview)

The user’s primary motivation in shopping for term life insurance is: “Protect Family,” and a big barrier is “High Cost.”

  1. Reputable Name (Credibility)
    Even if you’ve not heard of this company, John Hancock is a famous person and the term used as a synonym in the United States for one’s signature. The company reinforces it’s longevity later on the page.
  2. Toll-free Number (Credibility)
    Established and legitimate organization.
  3. Message Framing
    Live healthy, is also reinforced by the image of a family enjoying outdoors.
    “This life insurance product will help me live longer, lead a happy life like them, and protect my family in case something happens, and won’t cost much.”

  4. People Like Me & Association
    This family looks like mine (or the family next door) — I can see myself in this wide-open field (visceral and reflective triggers).
  5. Extrinsic Reward
    An Apple watch for $25 — that’s a bonus here!
  6. Visual Cueing
    The person in focus (stereotypical breadwinner) has his gaze directly focused at the form below, leading the user to the next step.
  7. Foot In The Door
    This quote won’t cost anything — zip, nada.
  8. Computer As A Social Actor
    The information takes a conversational tone and format, not the usual form in rows and columns. The information seems reasonable to generate a quote.
  9. Commitment & Consistency
    By filling this quick, easy, and free form, chances are that the user will act consistently and proceed when it comes to the next step (application), unless there’s another barrier (price, benefits, etc.)



    (Large preview)

  10. Control
    The user has a choice of devices.
  11. Extrinsic Rewards
    More rewards to be earned.
  12. Control
    The user controls how much they pay (the more active, the less you’ll pay). Also, in case the user does is not active, the cost is framed as just $13 (for a month).
  13. Credibility
    The company reinforces longevity and protector of America.
  14. Authority
    Licensed Coverage Coach (not just a sales agent).
  15. Flow
    One way to keep users in the flow and not get distracted is by disabling the social media links (which could raise the question: why display them?).

That took longer to dissect and read than it does in real life, where most of this is processed consciously and subconsciously in a few seconds, often with a glance or two.

Apart from the methods establishing credibility, the persuasive methods are used to strengthen the primary motivator of “Protect Family” (get insurance, extrinsic reward will help me live longer for my family), and weaken the barrier of “High Cost” (low monthly cost, additional savings, no ongoing watch payments). Note how they work together and don’t conflict or clutter the experience.

Conclusion

Persuasion is all around us, in our everyday lives. As designers, we can use ethical persuasive design methods to get users to take some action. With plenty of persuasive methods available, we have to be selective about what we use. We can use the KISS approach to keep it simple:

  • Know the right behavior to target
  • Identify barriers and motivators
  • Simplify the experience
  • Select appropriate triggers

KISS also reminds us to Keep It Simple & Straightforward, by selecting a simple target behavior, simplifying the experience for the user, and by applying persuasive techniques that will lead to the target behavior without overwhelming the user.

Further Reading

This article is part of the UX design series sponsored by Adobe. Adobe XD tool is made for a fast and fluid UX design process, as it lets you go from idea to prototype faster. Design, prototype, and share — all in one app. You can check out more inspiring projects created with Adobe XD on Behance, and also sign up for the Adobe experience design newsletter to stay updated and informed on the latest trends and insights for UX/UI design.

Smashing Editorial
(yk, il)


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