Today, CSS preprocessors are a standard for web development. One of the main advantages of preprocessors is that they enable you to use variables. This helps you to avoid copying and pasting code, and it simplifies development and refactoring.
We use preprocessors to store colors, font preferences, layout details — mostly everything we use in CSS. But preprocessor variables have some limitations.
Have you ever doubted Google? When it comes to the keyword ranking accuracy, we can be skeptical about rank tracker tools we use or SEOs we hired. But when we check rankings manually, we trust our eyes and Google. But you shouldn’t be so careless. Google is clever and agile. They have a massive list of factors that affect the search results they display for you. Even if you see your website in the Number 1 position, it doesn’t mean you really are on top of the world. Your customers may see a very different Top 10. Fortunately, you can…
I’ll explain how you can install this extension that supports the web extension model (i.e. Edge, Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Brave and Vivaldi), and provide some simple tips on how to get a unique code base for all of them, but also how to debug in each browser.
Web applications, be they thin websites or thick single-page apps, are notorious targets for cyber-attacks. In 2016, approximately 40% of data breaches originated from attacks on web apps — the leading attack pattern. Indeed, these days, understanding cyber-security is not a luxury but rather a necessity for web developers, especially for developers who build consumer-facing applications.
HTTP response headers can be leveraged to tighten up the security of web apps, typically just by adding a few lines of code. In this article, we’ll show how web developers can use HTTP headers to build secure apps. While the code examples are for Node.js, setting HTTP response headers is supported across all major server-side-rendering platforms and is typically simple to set up.
When they hit the front-end landscape a few years ago, preprocessors were heralded as the saviour of CSS, bringing modularity, meaning and even a degree of sexiness. Terms like “Sass architecture” became commonplace, ushering in a new generation of CSS developers who occasionally went to excess with their new-found power. The results were marvellous, and sometimes undesirable.
One of the unpleasant side effects was a preprocessor elitism that continues to persist. Neophyte designers who were just getting their hands dirty with CSS were overwhelmed by an influx of must-have tools and confused by the bitter partisan wars in web development forums.
If you do any kind of development for the web, then you know how important tools are, and you like finding tools that make your life easier. Developing and testing new browser features, however, takes time. Between the time a useful tool first appears in an experimental nightly build and the time it’s available for everyone to use in Firefox, a while has passed.
That’s one of the reasons Mozilla released Firefox Developer Edition in November 2014 as the recommended Firefox browser for developers. It gets new feature updates more quickly so that you can use the latest tools.
As users spend more time on mobile devices, the way we advertise to them has to change.
In the world of pay-per-click marketing, the past year has been as eventful as it’s been rocky. There’s been a litany of new advertising features released from big players like Facebook and Google, but the health of PPC advertising has felt uncertain.
In his State of PPC in 2015 presentation, WordStream CEO and PPC genius Larry Kim revealed that cost-per-click on search advertising is at an all-time high, and searches on desktop have been trending downwards for years. What’s going on?
All of the huge changes happening in PPC right now can be traced back to one thing: mobile. Below, we’ll explore how the continued shift from desktop to mobile is affecting digital advertising – and the technology behemoths that enable it.
The year of mobile, now and forever
Pretty much every year since 2009, it’s been declared that whatever year it was must certainly be the year of mobile!
The truth is that pretty much every year since the iPhone came out, it’s been the “year of mobile” in some way, be it mobile devices becoming more sophisticated and more usable, an increase in the amount of mobile-optimized content, or increase in the success of mobile ad campaigns.
The bottom line is that if you haven’t started optimizing your campaigns for mobile visitors, your visitors are already looking elsewhere. Thankfully, there are plenty of steps you can take to start earning leads on mobile pretty quickly.
For example, the “click to call” button introduced to Google AdWords in February allows prospects to connect with you over the phone without having to click through to another page, making the conversion pretty much instant.
That’s not going to always be an appropriate call to action, particularly in circumstances where you want to nurture your leads and guide them down the purchasing funnel. Thankfully, making a fully-fledged campaign landing page work on a mobile device is pretty easy, too; Unbounce, for example, automatically generates a mobile-responsive version of your landing page for you.
No matter what steps you take, remember that from now on, every year is the year of mobile.
While mobile has introduced plenty of new advertising opportunities, those opportunities are severely endangered on desktop devices as the proliferation of ad blockers continues.
Pagefair, a company that allows marketers to present unobtrusive ads that circumvent ad blockers, collaborated with Adobe to produce The 2015 Ad Blocking Report. Not unbiased sources by any means, yet still, their findings were staggering: there are 200 million users worldwide using ad blockers, up 41% from 2014. Worse, they’re costing advertisers an estimated $22 billion a year in revenue.
While mobile – and iOS, in particular – have often been considered by advertisers as safe spaces where ads cannot be blocked, this changed with Apple’s introduction of “content blocking” in iOS 9.
While iOS doesn’t block ads itself, it enables developers to build and release apps that block types of content delivered through Safari. And this doesn’t just mean ads: cookies, images, pop-ups, autoplay videos and a plethora of other content types can be theoretically blocked in Safari if the developer and user choose so.
Interestingly enough, the ad asking users to subscribe to the print edition of Wired (outlined in red above) only appears if you have AdBlock enabled. And the URL it leads to? “wired.com/go/failsafe.” Clearly, this ad is a last-ditch effort to make some money out of what’s otherwise a negative-revenue scenario.
Even maker of popular web browser Firefox has entered the content blocking foray, having just this week released Focus for iOS 9, which solely blocks trackers – ads sans tracking mechanisms get through just fine, although most ads in the year 2015 come with tracking baked-in.
In this scenario, there is no company in a stronger position than Facebook.
The war between Google and Facebook
Facebook’s move to the public market was considered “disastrous” when it happened back in 2012, but that was also the same time when Facebook started offering mobile ads – a product they were in a unique position to take advantage of, being the destination app for hundreds of millions of people worldwide.
Since then, mobile ads have pretty much been far-and-away the most important part of Facebook’s business.
Google gave us the Customer Match, which allows you to upload a list of prospects’ email addresses and target (or exclude) those prospects in your campaigns – functionality Facebook has offered for some time
Google also introduced the ability to target audiences that it deems similar to the list you uploaded, another feature Facebook already offered; however, in Google’s case, this works only on Gmail and Youtube, and crucially, not search
Meanwhile Facebook opened advertising on Instagram to all marketers, along with new features like 30-second videos (compared to users’ 15-second videos) and image carousels
And recently, Facebook introduced detailed targeting, which gives marketers more flexibility in targeting their campaigns by letting them target particular combinations of factors, and letting them exclude other factors. Like so:
This graphic from Facebook shows how basic and detailed targeting combine to form a final audience:
But Google isn’t resting on their laurels in the face of the stiff competition. Days ago, Google introduced a new format to AdMob, its in-app ad network. Trial-run ads allow marketers to embed 60-second app demos directly into the ad. And I don’t mean videos – I mean real, functioning apps.
A demo of Candy Crush Saga being played within an ad.
“For example, early tester Zalora, makers of a fashion shopping app, built an ad that allows users to swipe to discover an exclusive offer. Other app marketers could create ad formats like “scratch off’s,” or use the ads to create swipeable image carousels. They can even use live app content to create real-time ad formats, says Google.”
While both of these ad formats are in beta and won’t be available to all advertisers for some time, it’s obvious that this tit-for-tat between Facebook and Google, centered almost entirely around who will own advertising on mobile devices, is leading to great developments from both sides for advertisers.
The early bird gets the click
TL;DR: PPC in 2015 has been awesome, but also terrifying.
There are countless opportunities being enabled by the proliferation of mobile, but those opportunities come at the cost of abandoning safe, time-tested tactics.
Where do we go from here? I’d have to defer back to Larry Kim:
Don’t fret the loss of old features – be the first to use new features.
The Law of Shitty Clickthroughs dictates that the clickthrough rate of any ad format trends towards zero over time. At first, users respond highly to the novelty of the format, but as humans learn to recognize the patterns of each ad format, they subconsciously tune them out.
So embrace new formats as quickly as possible. Start testing ideas and collecting data immediately. Optimize your campaigns before your competitors even begin looking at the format. The first-mover advantage is real, and it’s huge.
Embrace new ad formats as they come; the first-mover advantage is real and huge. Click To Tweet
VWO recently conducted a giveaway along with Concept Feedback where we promised a free website evaluation by a Concept Feedback expert. Charmingcharlie.com won this contest and Concept Feedback expert Tom Charde along with the team has been working hard to churn out a brilliant review for this website. Read on for a review of CharmingCharlie.com, head to tail.
Note that the following analysis was done viewing the site on;
Web – MacBook Pro 15” Retina display (2880 x 1800) | OS X (10.10.3) | Firefox (38.0.1) browser
Mobile – iPhone 5S | iOS (8.3) | Safari browser.
After a quick walkthrough of the website, a couple things are very clear: it has a very clean design, is aesthetically appealing, has an audience-appropriate tone, and provides an impressive product offering. Charming Charlie steers clear of excessively large images and in-your-face promotional messages, which, in itself, is a big win for the user experience.
The first big hurdle that we noticed upon visiting the site is that it lacks any kind of site description, positioning statement, brand promise and/or value proposition. Your existing customers may know all about you, but there’s a large, untapped audience you’re overlooking: people who are unfamiliar with your brand.
Here’s a few basic questions one should ask themselves:
How would you describe the company to someone who’s never heard of it?
How does it provide value to its customers?
What differentiates it from the rest of the market?
Here’s what we can make out from a simple research of the brand; Charming Charlie is a retail store (online and offline) with the latest trends in women’s apparel, fashion jewellery, shoes, handbags, accessories and more. This should ideally be mentioned on the home page and done so in text format.
There are several great copy points on the ‘About’ page that could ideally craft the messaging and help establish a unique tone for Charming Charlie.
We’re crazy for color.
We live for sparkle.
We thrive on making a statement.
We know accessories have the power to transform both your outfit and your outlook.
Helping every woman, everywhere, find her fabulous.
If it feels good, do it. If it looks good, do it in every color.
Unleash your one-of-a-kind style.
Bring out your most fabulous, fierce and fun self.
Charming Charlie needs a one-line “hook” statement; something succinct and hard-hitting that can be used as a tagline near the logo and possibly in the header area. The fifth bullet above (Helping every woman, everywhere, find her fabulous) is close, but it’s a bit too long. Consider this;
Charming Charlie find your fabulous!
Refining the messaging will not only strengthen the brand, but will also boost the search engine rankings for relevant keywords.
Moving forth we will break our analysis down to 3 categories; Technical analysis, Heuristic analysis and Mobile website analysis.
The first and foremost thing that one should focus on is to ensure a glitch free website experience. Fixing minor bugs is low-hanging fruit, one that you can make a lot of money on. We found some of these conversion killing bugs on Charming Charlie;
Upon arriving, the site immediately forces an intrusive promotional pop-up on the user. We’d recommend running a few tests on this (one without any pop-ups; one with a 15-sec delay; etc) to see if the bounce rate improves.
The top promo banner in the header (scarves) is loading an error message.
The “Quick Views” feature on the “As Seen In” page doesn’t seem to be working; it displays an endless loading spinner.
Many of the text-based graphics throughout the site aren’t retina-ready. (Examples: Charming Charlie logo, media logos in footer, free shipping banner.) Most users won’t experience a difference, but those with retina displays are seeing a pronounced drop in graphic quality.
The email sign-up page (under “Customer Service”) gives an “invalid certificate” error. Testing this on Mercury Browser also showed similar results.
CharmingCharlie.com’s clean, minimalistic design is one of its major strengths. It sets the tone right away. The homepage’s look and feel is right on target. Design-wise, one thing we’d suggest is tweaking the styling (inconsistent text colors and alignment) and placement (perhaps move to hero image area?) of the promo banners, which seem to jumble up the header space. The area of the homepage with the most room for improvement is the content.
Allocation of page real estate: The current viewport is dominated by a giant slider; an area that can be used much more efficiently. Try reducing the height of the slider images, moving some of the featured products and messages up, and testing for engagement.
Complete absence of copy: There is literally zero copy as HTML text; the entire page is image-based. In addition to accessibility issues and increased page load time, lacking text on the homepage is killing the chances of achieving a decent search engine ranking.
Lack of Clarity around Newsletter sign up form: There is a “Sign up for emails” form in the footer, but there’s no information about what this is for. Think about it from a user’s perspective: “Why should I sign up? What are you going to send me in exchange for giving my personal contact information?” Try adding a brief description near the form or a link which describes what a user can look forward to.
Following is a screenshot of homepage, annotated with things that should be worked upon.
We’ve also made a quick mockup for one possible way the header might be transformed.
The What’s New category is confusing.
It has a combination of “themed” content (Modern Americana, Citrus Splash, Moroccan Muse).
A redirect to an existing main category (CC Essentials).
An out-of-place sub-category (Best Sellers).
There’s really only one true subcategory that fits here: New Arrivals. To remedy this, simply eliminate the What’s New category entirely by ‘New Arrivals’. Following is a screenshot of the category browsing drop down of Charming Charlie and things that should be worked upon.
Also consider sorting the resulting list of categories into two grouped areas: those which are a product type (Jewellery, Handbags, Apparel, Accessories) and then all the others (New Arrivals, Best Sellers, Seasonal, Special Occasion, CC Essentials, Sale). And it may help to separate the two groups in the side nav with a faint line. Check the mockup with these suggestions implemented.
The product page looks pretty standard but there are multiple tweaks which can be done to make them convert more. The screenshot below annotates some aspects which can be improved.
One other glaring aspect which we noticed was that there is no product review system. It often acts as a social proof and really helps the visitor take a decision on the product page.
With e-commerce buyers rapidly gravitating towards mobile, fully functional mobile site is a must. CharmingCharlie.com isn’t a true responsive site, but it does have a fairly decent mobile
Similar to the desktop site, the mobile version of the homepage suffers from a serious page real estate concern: the promo messages, navigation, utilities, etc take up almost 60% of the initial screen. Reducing the size of this footprint and moving the meat of the content up will almost certainly improve bounce rate and conversions.
Store Locator – Visual Hierarchy Issues
With two form fields (styled differently for some reason) interspersed among three large, black buttons — the eye just doesn’t know where to go on this page.
Converting the buttons to links, and adding some space between the main content and the footer (email signup form) should help create a better flow.
Product Page Readability
We would recommend increasing the font size of the product page body copy. The size used on the About, Privacy, and other non-product pages is much easier to read — as can be seen below in a side-by-side comparison.
This brings us to the end of the website review of Charmingcharlie.com. We definitely hope Charming Charlie would implement these changes and share the results with us. We thank Tom Charde for working rigorously on this review and helping us in bringing this review to such good shape.
CSS’ clip-path property is your ticket to shape-shifting the monotonous, boxy layouts traditionally associated with flat, responsive design. You will begin to think outside the box, literally, and hexagons, stars and octagons will begin to take form on your web pages. Once you get your hands dirty with clip-path, there’s no end to the shapes you can generate, simply by tweaking a few values.
While the focus of this article is on clip-path using polygons with CSS, all of the demos provide a reference to an inline SVG, in order to gain additional support on Firefox. Generating a responsive SVG clipped shape is trivial once you have created a responsive shape with CSS’ clip-path. We’ll look at this in detail later.
Clip-Path, In A Nutshell
Clipping, with the clip-path property, is akin to cutting a shape (like a circle or a pentagon) from a rectangular piece of paper. The property belongs to the “CSS Masking Module Level 1731” specification. The spec states, “CSS masking provides two means for partially or fully hiding portions of visual elements: masking and clipping”.
The first part, i.e. masking, has to do with using a graphical element, such as a PNG image, CSS gradient or SVG element, as a mask to conceal sections of another element.
The second part, i.e. clip-path, involves a closed vector path, which could be a basic shape defined in CSS or an SVG using the clipPath tag. The region inside this path is displayed, and everything beyond or outside it is clipped out.
Articles about clipping that use the deprecated syntax feature code that looks like this:
clip: rect(30px, 30px, 20px, 20px);
Support For Clip-Path
In August 2014, the “CSS Masking Module” was published as a “Candidate Recommendation,” which is a step up from the earlier “Last Call Working Draft” stage. Before we look at browser support, it’s important to consider the multiple ways in which clip-path can be applied to an element, because browser support varies for each method.
There are two ways to use clip-path:
Basic shapes from the “CSS Shapes Module9” provide a convenient way to use clip-path. The different shapes available are polygon, circle, ellipse and inset; inset is for rectangular shapes.
One can, alternatively, create a shape using SVG and then clip an element to this shape via the URL syntax. There are two ways to do this:
with a reference to an inline SVG (i.e. the SVG markup exists on the page itself),
with a reference to an external SVG document.
In both cases, the clipPath element within the SVG is used to wrap the element that determines the clipping path, be it a circle, polygon, path or other element. Compare the demo below in Firefox and in a WebKit or Blink browser such as Chrome to spot the differences. Square images imply a lack of browser support.
Note: The third image does not show up in Safari. Despite extensive debugging, I’m unable to resolve the issue. I’d appreciate a note in the comments section if you come across the solution.
As you may have gathered from observing the demo above in different browsers, support for clipping paths13 is quirky and currently depends on the means by which you choose to clip an element:
with CSS: Chrome 24+, Safari 7+, Opera 15+, iOS 7.1+, Android 4.4+, Opera Mobile 24+
(Note that all supported browsers currently require the -webkit vendor prefix.)
with SVG: all of the browsers listed above and Firefox 3.5+
The clip-path property is not yet supported in Internet Explorer but is currently under consideration14 as part of the “Masking Module.”
Note: There is a caveat with support for SVG clipping path. Modern WebKit and Blink browsers support clipping paths with SVGs only if they are declared inline (i.e. within the document). References to external SVGs are supported only in Firefox, as evidenced in the demo above. The Chromium project is tracking this bug15.
Let’s examine the advantages of CSS versus SVG with clip-path.
Advantages of CSS
The lucid syntax is easy to grasp due to the relative simplicity of basic shapes.
Responsiveness is easily achieved with relative units, such as percentages.
Advantages of SVG
Browser support is better, with the addition of Firefox.
You can clip with complex shapes, multiple shapes and text.
While CSS offers a background-clip property that provides us with some options (including a non-standard way to clip text), neither background-clip nor CSS’ clip-path match what SVG clipping can achieve in modern browsers. Getting acquainted with clip-path via CSS, however, is less intimidating (especially if you aren’t familiar with manipulating SVGs) and will prepare you for the intricacies of clipping paths with SVG, as well as the “CSS Shapes Module16,” where content aligns itself to the shape of an element.
Let’s look at the pros and cons of using clip-path to progressively enhance our designs.
Browsers that don’t support the clip-path property will ignore it. If you use it with care, users on non-supporting browsers won’t suspect a thing!
Once a clipping-path shape is generated, the specification states that pointer events must not be dispatched outside the clipping area (which is ideal). So, the click event is restricted to the shape and its outer boundary18. We will look at this in the demos below.
You can use percentages or any length unit, such as pixels or ems, to define your coordinates with basic shapes using CSS. Fluid units such as percentages can be used to create responsive shapes, perfect for adaptive layouts.
The specification has not yet reached the “Recommendation” stage, so there’s always a chance that the syntax will change in the interim.
A few bugs have been reported with clip-path and 3D transforms, transitions and opacity, which are covered in the demos below. Be aware of these, and avoid combining properties that replicate these bugs.
Clip-Path With Polygons: Usage And Syntax
The demos below focus on using different kinds of polygons in a design. The syntax for the other basic shapes (i.e. inset, circle and ellipse) is quite simple, and you can go only so far with them. Polygons, however, open the door to a practically infinite numbers of shapes.
Let’s look at a demo to understand how to plot coordinates for a polygon.
Below we have an image that is clipped. The background color represents the dimensions of the original image. The black boxes with the coordinates are simply absolutely positioned divs whose locations match the polygon’s vertices in percentages. You will see that they maintain their positions, even if you resize your browser window to a narrow width (for example, 400 pixels or greater).
Real-World Examples With Clip-Path
Note: Every demo in this article uses clip-path with CSS but also has inline SVG in the markup with a class of clip-svg, which simply resets the width and height of the SVG to 0. You could, alternatively, remove the class and set the width and height attributes directly in the SVG markup.
Example 1: Clip An Image to Various Polygon Shapes
In case you need a quick definition of a polygon, it’s a 2D shape that’s closed and consists of straight lines.
Therefore, a shape cannot be a polygon if it has curves, is open or has fewer than three lines. Some famous polygons in history are triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons and hexagons. Even star shapes are polygons, since the boundaries of a polygon can cross each other.
Note: The images in the demo are responsive. By using the good ol’ responsive image solution of img max-width: 100%; height: auto; and adaptive clipping paths via CSS and SVG, we make our polygons blissfully scale up and down.
This demo is the result of an exercise to understand plotting coordinates to make polygon shapes. I’ve added several shapes that you can use for your designs in the demo below. On hovering over each image, you will see the aspect ratio of the original image.
Nothing beats the exceptional Clippy7727, a GUI tool by Bennett Feely to visualize shapes. All coordinates for all of the existing shapes are provided in percentages, and there’s also a custom polygon option. This one’s a game-changer. You can use Clippy to generate clipped shapes and create SVGs for yourself based on them, for better browser support.
Example 2: Animate a Basic Shape With CSS Transition
Hover over the purple hexagon. It transforms to an octagon. However, the CSS transition specified has not taken effect.
Because a hexagon has six pairs of coordinate points, let’s add two pairs through duplication to make them eight, to match the number of pairs for an octagon. These duplicated pairs won’t affect the shape of the hexagon.
This is the declaration for a hexagon in the form of a default polygon with six pairs of coordinate points:
Now the transition will be smooth as the shapes transform, as seen in the demo below.
Note: For browsers that support clipping paths only with SVG (currently Firefox), we need to add a SMIL animation to obtain a seamless transition on hover. According to the SMIL specification, declarative animations can be used to animate paths and polygon points in SVG, which is currently impossible with CSS.
In the demo below (background image courtesy of morgueFile37), you can see that we have animated the polygon points between the mouseover and mouseout events over a duration of 0.2 seconds. Look for the <animate> tag in the SVG markup.
Example 3: Add a Border to a Clipped Object
To make a long story short, borders, outlines and box-shadows that lie outside the clipping region are removed.
I was a little saddened by this, and I pinged the W3C members on the working group for CSS. However, the conclusion is that there’s no way to do this when you’re using basic shapes. Dirk Schulze41 responded to my query: “Yes, all drawing operations belonging to the element get clipped. This includes outlines and borders.”
See the demo below. Hover over the rhomboid with a partial border to see the original, unclipped version with the entire border.
Of course, we can always use a CSS hack to get a border, which is what I finally resorted to — good ol’ generated content.
The demo below creates a copy of the element via a pseudo-element (content:after) and absolutely positions it. This creates the illusion of a border, enabling us to simulate interesting effects, such as the gradient border seen in the second octagon and the inset box-shadow via a CSS filter on the third one (not very pretty, but functional). Note that CSS filters currently work only in Firefox and in WebKit and Blink browsers.
Example 4: Use clip-path to Create a Diamond Grid Over a Rhombus
Below is the image we will use.
This is the effect we’re aiming for. Upon hovering over the bottom three boxes, you’ll see the background color fade to reveal the background.
The actual size of the image is 600 × 600 pixels. Thus, let’s start with four empty divs of 300 pixels each and apply the same background image to them. Let’s add a parent wrapper of 604 pixels and lay out the images with the inline-block property.
Let’s now change the value of the background-position property for each image to top, left, right and bottom, respectively.
Let’s clip each box into the shape of a rhombus. We will overlay an absolutely positioned layer on each of the bottom three images, with some text.
Now we will move the images into rows — the second and third image into one row, and the first and fourth into their own individual rows.
Finally, we will use negative margins to push up the second and third rows, so that they are laid out as in the final demo below. We can remove the width value of 604 pixels on the parent wrapper, and we can structure our media query so that the four diamond boxes move from a stacked layout on small screens to inline blocks on larger ones.
While working on this demo, I noticed a bug in Chrome with pointer events being dispatched outside the clipped region, which violates the specification63: “By default, pointer events must not be dispatched on the clipped-out (non-visible) regions of a shape.” I have filed the bug64. The issue with this demo was solved by using the pointer-events property with a value of none on the overlay. Alternatively, you could apply the same clip-path value to the overlay to resolve the issue.
Due to the negative margins applied, this demo would look odd in browsers that don’t support clip-path. You would have to use some sort of feature detection to apply the margins (although I haven’t experimented with this) or the @supports CSS feature query, although I wouldn’t recommend the latter in production code.
Example 5: Create a Dummy Profile Page With Hexagons
Our final page should look like this:
We’ll start by adding a background image of hexagon tiles to the body (the image courtesy of Subtle Patterns67).
The hexagon clip-path values can be obtained from one of the demos above or with the Clippy tool.
The first hexagon uses a background image (because we’re blending a dull maroon into the background using the background-blend-mode property). Using generated content, an absolutely positioned overlay is clipped to a maroon triangle shape, which you can see on the bottom. It disappears on hover.
The second hexagon, with the word “work,” simply has a dark grey background that changes on hover.
The third hexagon has a gradient border, similar to the one in the demo on creating borders with clip-path.
The hexagons stack on small screens and are vertically centered on larger ones. I’ve used a combination of display: table and the absolute centering transforms hack — of course, you could use flexbox, floats or whatever else floats your layouting boat.
Here’s the final demo.
I discovered a bug71 with clip-path while creating this demo. Altering the value of opacity in combination with the CSS transition causes a flicker and artifacts on the page. Be aware of this if you’re using clip-path to progressively enhance a design.
There is also a bug with clip-path and the backface-visibility property when set to hidden. This bug is documented in Chromium72’s issue tracker and I have been able to replicate it using the basic shape syntax in Chrome on Linux. Keep this in mind if you’re using a clip-path shape to do a cool 3D flip or anything that uses CSS 3D transforms.
While clipping with SVG wins hands down for its flexibility and options, nothing beats the ease with which elements can be clipped with CSS. In fact, the same polygon coordinates can be effortlessly recycled to create responsive SVG for even better browser support. With clip-path, you can dramatically alter the look and feel of a page, without having to worry much about non-supporting browsers, where it will gracefully degrade. If you choose to use clip-path for design enhancements, keep an eye on the specification as it advances towards “Recommendation” status.
“clip-path75,” Sara Soueidan, Codrops
Soueidan’s well-researched and comprehensive article over on Codrops breaks down a fairly complicated module into something that is easy to understand and assimilate.
“Clipping and Masking in CSS76,” Chris Coyier, CSS-Tricks
Coyier’s article, peppered with several helpful demos, explains both clipping and masking.
Bennett Feely’s fab clip-path maker can generate a plethora of predefined and custom polygon shapes, circles and ellipses for CSS’ clip-path. All values are in percentages and, hence, useful for responsive layouts.
Clip Path Generator78
CSS Plant offers a rather comprehensive graphical interface to clip or mask an element. Cross-browser support is provided for Firefox, Chrome, Safari and old iOS. Clips are in pixels, not percentages.
Species in Pieces79
So breathtaking it borders on the spiritual, this showcase of 30 endangered species was crafted entirely with CSS’ clip-path, without a hint of canvas or WebGL. View it in a WebKit or Blink browser until the other ones catch up.