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Landing Page Essentials: A Free Video Crash Course from Unbounce and Skillshare

Ever heard the saying “Cart before the horse”? Or “You have to crawl before you can walk”? Or “You can’t put lipstick on a landing page with 27 links”?

That last one may be exclusive to landing page software employees, but the sentiment is the same. Unless the foundation of your landing page is strong, any optimization beyond that will be a waste of your time—and ad spend. Because even the slickest, fanciest landing page will leak precious conversions if it lacks certain crucial elements.

For the sake of those ad dollars, let’s go back to basics.

In collaboration with our friends (and customers!) at Skillshare, we’ve created a free video crash course on the fundamentals of a high-converting landing page. Whether you’re building your first page or just want a refresher, you’ll get a checklist to set up each of your pages for success.

The full course, Creating Dedicated Landing Pages: How to Get Better ROI for Your Marketing Spend, is hosted by Unbounce VP of Product Marketing Ryan Engley and comprised of 11 videos totalling a quick 31 minutes. Sign up for a free Skillshare account and dive right into binge mode, or keep scrolling for an overview of what every landing page you create should have.

Bonus: Skillshare is offering 2 free months and access to thousands of other marketing classes just for signing up through our course.

Who’s it for?

Anyone running marketing campaigns! But in particular, those who execute on them.

Whether you’re responsible for launching paid advertising campaigns, build and design landing pages yourself, or work with designers and copywriters to create them, this course will ensure you’ve covered every base to create a compelling and high-converting post-click experience.

In a nutshell: It’s for anyone who runs paid marketing campaigns and wants to get the most bang for their buck.

What will it teach me?

In 11 videos, Ryan will take you through the process of creating a persuasive marketing campaign, cover each step of building a successful landing page within it, and explain the “why” behind it all so you’re taught to fish instead of just being handed the fish.

A few tidbits to start

Attention Ratio

If you’re thinking, “What’s wrong with sending people to my homepage?” then Attention Ratio is a great place to start.

“Your website is a bit of a jack of all trades,” Ryan explains. “Usually it’ll have a ton of content for SEO purposes, maybe information about your team…but if you’re running a marketing campaign and you have a single call to action in mind, your website’s not going to do you any favours.”

The more links you have on your page, the more distractions there are from your campaign’s CTA. You don’t want people to explore—you want them to act. And an Attention Ratio of 1:1 is a powerful way of achieving that.

Learn more about Attention Ratio in chapter three.

Unique Selling Proposition (USP)

Somewhat self-explanatory, your Unique Selling Proposition describes the benefit you offer, how you solve for prospects’ needs, and what distinguishes you from the competition. This doesn’t all have to fit in one sentence, rather, it can reveal itself throughout the page. But if you’re going to focus on one place to do the “heavy lifting,” as Ryan calls it, this place should be your headline and subhead.

Take Skillshare’s landing page for a content marketing course by Buzzfeed’s Matt Bellassai (if his name doesn’t ring a bell, Google him, grab some popcorn, and come back to us with a few laughter-induced tears streaming down your face). Without even looking at the rest of the page, you know exactly what you’ll get out of this course and how it will help you achieve a goal.

Learn more about Unique Selling Proposition in chapter five.

Social Proof

What’s more convincing than word of mouth? Since we don’t advise stalking and hiring people’s friends to tell prospects how great you are, the next best thing is to feature testimonials on your landing page. The key here is that you’re establishing trust and credibility by having someone else back you up.

Customer quotes, case studies, and product reviews are just a few of the many ways you can inject social proof into your landing page. Think of it as a “seal of approval” woven into your story that shows prospects you deliver on the promise of your Unique Selling Proposition.

Customer testimonials serve as the proof in your pudding.

Learn more about Social Proof in chapter eight.

And now for all the bits

Watch all 11 episodes of Creating Dedicated Landing Pages: How to Get Better ROI for Your Marketing Spend to set your landing pages up for success in less time than it takes to finish your lunch break. Beyond being 100% free, it’ll save you a lot of guesswork in building landing pages that convert and precious ad spend to boot. So settle in for a mini binge watch with a sandwich on the company tab—you earned it.

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Landing Page Essentials: A Free Video Crash Course from Unbounce and Skillshare

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Strategies to Scale Your Local PPC Campaigns Without Killing Your ROI

Strategies to Scale Your Local PPC Campaigns Without Killing Your ROI

Over 85% of online consumers these days are engaging with brands locally, whether through local listings, local sites, or search results. So you can’t be blamed for thinking that geo-targeting and running local PPC campaigns in Google Ads make a whole lot of sense.

The only problem? If you work at a multi-location franchise or company with multiple offices, local PPC at scale can be very messy.

First of all, it eats up a lot of resources to set up and maintain. And, second, when you’re trying to appeal to prospects in many locations with different ads and landing pages, mistakes and resource costs can easily kill your Google Ads campaign profitability.

The good news, however, is that—by using smart strategies and tools—you can scale your local PPC campaigns and target several locations at once without too many headaches.

Let’s explore this process.

Scale Local PPC Campaigns with Flexible Structure

First of all, scaling can be messy without proper Google Ads campaign structure. Good structure keeps things clean—and keeps you sane in the process.

I have two rules when it comes to structure for scaling local campaigns:

  • Rule #1. Have a keyword theme for each campaign.
  • Rule #2. Break your campaigns down into geo-focused ad groups.

Rule #1. Have a keyword theme for each campaign.

Your goal in establishing keyword themes is to match your paid audience with the message that is most relevant to their search intent.

This means that each theme should represent a specific stage in the Buyer’s Journey, so you know how it fits into your overall PPC Strategy.

For instance, if you’re running campaigns for an interior design studio, your campaigns would break down into the followings stages:

  • Decision stage. Targeting people who know what they the want (ie. “kitchen remodeling”) and have already decided on it.
  • Consideration stage. Targeting people who are considering an action (“should we remodel our kitchen?”) but haven’t decided yet.
  • Awareness stage. Targeting people who may be DIY-types or people who are starting their research (“what’s involved in kitchen remodeling?”) related to the services your company offers.

Once you’ve organized your campaigns into keywords themes in this way, you’ll need to figure out the ad groups they contain.

Rule #2. Break your campaigns down into geo-focused ad groups.

Rule #2 is about creating geo-focused ad groups. That is, you should break your campaigns down into ad groups that are location specific.

Why is this important?

Not surprisingly, different types of location searches perform differently. Segmenting them helps you to see the big picture, prioritize the optimization efforts, and finally scale to suit your needs.

To explore this idea further, we analyzed a few client categories, such as construction, legal, real estate, and interior design with over $10,000 in local PPC ad spend. Our research showed that searches with location performed better than general searches.

Location Mentioned in Search Terms
Our results show better performance when location is mentioned in search terms (via SCUBE Marketing)

Knowing this, I like to segment campaigns into four types of geo-focused ad groups:

  1. Non-Location
  2. Near Me
  3. Location SKAG (single keyword ad groups)
  4. Other Locations

Doing so helps create unique ads that are most relevant to prospects for each type of ad group at scale. Here’s a bit of information on each, with examples to make things clear:

Non-Location

Non-Location ad groups represent general theme-based searches with no location modifier. Here is an example of what this ad group looks like:

Example of Non-Location (via
Example of Non-Location
Pro Tip. If search terms with locations are accidentally triggered in this ad group, use negative keywords to exclude them. You can then add the relevant keywords in the SKAG or Other Locations ad groups.

Near Me

The number of “near me” searches has been growing (as a result of increased use of mobile devices and voice search) over the past five years. This type of search represents Google’s Micro-Moments philosophy, where you have to “Be There,” “Be Useful,” and “Be Quick” in order to stay relevant to consumer behavior.

Near me search term interest in the past 5 years (via Google Trends)
Near Me search term interest in the past five years (via Google Trends)

Because of the increased importance of this type of search, you should keep “near me” in an ad group separate from the others. See the example below:

Example of Near Me SKAG
Example of Near Me

Location SKAG

You may already be familiar with single keyword ad groups (SKAG). As the name suggests, they’re ad groups dedicated to just one keyword. For local PPC campaigns, you can use Location SKAG to separate locations with enough traffic, when it makes sense to track separately.

Here’s an example:

Example of Location SKAG
Example of Location SKAG

Other Locations

Finally, Other Locations ad groups represent all locations you are targeting except the ones in Location SKAG. The benefit of this is that you won’t need to create hundreds of ad groups that generate little traffic but require a lot of management time.

This ad group is the place for location-based keywords unless (or until) they get enough traffic to split them into their own Location SKAG.

Example of Other Locations SKAG
Example of Other Locations

Remember, once locations within this category become significant, you will want to promote them to separate Location SKAG.

Pro Tip. Don’t overdo the number of keywords you use. Google has extended its exact match keyword to cover not only plurals and close variants but also word ordering and function words in exact match keywords. Simply put, this means you don’t need as many keywords, and including too many will make your life harder.

Maintaining separate ad groups helps you prioritize optimization and testing efforts so you can have an impact and stay efficient with your time.

At this point, you may be asking:

But Tom, how can you have a message match between location search and your ad headline when you have many keywords in the ad group?

The short answer is Ad Customizers…

Scale with ad customizers

Message match is all about making sure your prospects’ keywords, your ads, and your landing pages are all consistent. It can have a significant effect on your conversions.

For good message match when scaling your local PPC campaigns, your ad has to match search terms with locations. This is why locality elements such as City, State, or even the word “local” (literally) matter a lot in your local PPC ad campaigns.

For most campaigns, creating unique ads for Non-Location, Near Me, or Location SKAG is manageable. But, when you get into the “Other location” category, creating relevant ads without the dedicated ad groups can be tough.

That’s why ad customizers are your best friend when scaling local PPC campaigns:

The Big Picture Of How The Ad Customizer Works
The big picture of how the ad customizer works

Here is how Google defines ad customizers:

Ad customizers adapt your text ads to what someone is searching for, which device she’s using, where he’s located, or even the date, time of day, or day of the week. They can insert a price, the time left before a sale ends, and any other text that you define.

You need two things to make ad customizers work:

  1. A dataset with attributes to use in your ads
  2. Ads to present the attributes

Let’s start with the dataset. All you will need is a simple spreadsheet that you can upload to the Business Data section in Google Ads. The spreadsheet will contain two types of data for your ads:

  • Attributes: In other words, what you want to customize in your ad. This can be text, price, number, or date.
  • Targeting: These signal when the attribute becomes active. There are seven targeting attributes. For local campaigns, however, location of interest and physical location targeting are the most useful.
Ad Customizer Data
Ad customizer data

In the example above, we automatically include “In Chicago” in the ad text when the person searching is physically in Chicago.

Pro Tip. Remember the name of the dataset (a.k.a. the spreadsheet) because you will need to reference it in the ads. See the example below:

Spreadsheet Name
Using the name of the dataset

Once you have your data, apply it in your ads. Whether you’re creating a new ad or editing an existing one, define the dataset and attribute you want to use in it. It will look like the example below:

Ad Customizer Data
Ad customizer data

Once the conditions are met, the ad will automatically show the attribute defined in the dataset.

The final result will look like the example below, where the location name we defined (“In Chicago” in this case) will dynamically show up when the searcher is physically located in our defined location (Chicago).

Ad Customizer Data
Ad customizer data
Pro Tip. Always keep one default ad without ad customizers for cases in which the conditions are not met. Otherwise, the ad group will not serve, and you’ll miss out on potential traffic.

Scale Landing Pages for Local PPC Ads with Dynamic Text Replacement (DTR)

To create a local experience for visitors searching for local products or services, you need to emphasize location on your landing pages.

To do this, you could create hundreds of landing pages using your CMS. While this approach will get the job done, it’s convoluted and extremely slow.

Alternatively, you could custom code a template connected to a location database and automatically create hundreds of landing pages.

With both of the above options, though, you end up managing hundreds of landing pages, which will create issues.

Sarunas Budrikas, President of Angle180 agency, describes this experience:

No matter the approach, the ramp-up time for developing new landing pages can take weeks. Landing page customization usually takes us 3 to 4 hours per location. It’s not an efficient way, especially if you planning A/B testing and updates.

With efficiency in mind, how do you get the job done faster?

Fortunately, there is a third option. You can use Unbounce’s Dynamic Text Replacement to add location elements for each location variant landing page.

Here’s a real-world example. The landing page below has a unique headline for keywords representing different locations, so a visitor in Houston will see a different headline than a visitor in San Antonio.

Keyword insertion using Dynamic Text Replacement
Keyword insertion using Dynamic Text Replacement (DTR)

Fortunately, DTR is easy to implement. You need just three components to swap out this location keyword dynamically:

  • Keywords, which will affect the URL
  • A URL tracking template, which will use the triggered keyword in the URL
  • And a landing page with Dynamic Text Replacement, which will read the URL and change the content based on the keyword in the URL

First, use the keywords from the campaign structure I covered above. You will find this feature especially useful for Location SKAG and Other Location ad groups.

Second, set up a URL template with ValueTrack parameters. The tracking template must have keyword parameters in order to work. You can see an example of this below:

URL Template Example
URL template example

Finally, set the content to change when the URL triggers the keyword defined in your tracking template. Don’t forget to set the default text, in case the URL doesn’t have a keyword.

The example below displays the how Dynamic Text Replacement looks in the Unbounce Builder, which you can use to accelerate the creation of your landing pages:

Dynamic Text Replacement in Unbounce
Dynamic Text Replacement (DTR) in Unbounce
Pro Tip. If you want more detailed instructions on how to set up Dynamic Text Replacement in Unbounce, take a look at the “How To” guide to learn the ins and outs of implementing it with Google Ads Keyword Insertion.

To summarize, you can scale local PPC campaigns with minimal pain by focusing on campaign structure, ad customizers, and dynamic text insertion from ad to landing page. Investing the time to implement these strategies early on in your scaling efforts will pay off in the long run.

How are you scaling your local PPC campaigns? Have any hot tips that I missed? Let’s discuss your methods in the comments below.

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Strategies to Scale Your Local PPC Campaigns Without Killing Your ROI

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20 Conversion Optimization Tips for Zooming Past Your Competition

20 Conversion Optimization Tips for Zooming Past Your Competition

Conversion optimization (CRO) is one of the most impactful things you can do as a marketer.

I mean, bringing traffic to a website is important (because without traffic you’re designing for an audience of crickets). But without a cursory understanding of conversion optimization—including research, data-driven hypotheses, a/b tests, and analytical capabilities—you risk making decisions for your website traffic using only gut feel.

CRO can give your marketing team ideas for what you can be doing better to convert visitors into leads or customers, and it can help you discover which experiences are truly optimal, using A/B tests.

However, as with many marketing disciplines, conversion optimization is constantly misunderstood. It’s definitely not about testing button colors, and it’s not about proving to your colleagues that you’re right.

I’ve learned a lot about how to do CRO properly over the years, and below I’ve compiled 20 conversion optimization tips to help you do it well, too.

Conversion Optimization Tip 1:
Learn how to run an A/B test properly

Running an A/B test (an online controlled experiment) is one of the core practices of conversion optimization.

Testing two or more variations of a given page to see which performs best can seem easy due to the increased simplification of testing software. However, it’s still a methodology that uses statistical inference to make a decision as to which variant is best delivered to your audience. And there are a lot of fine distinctions that can throw things off.

What is A/B Testing?

There are many nuances we could get into here—Bayesian vs. frequentist statistics, one-tailed vs. two-tailed tests, etc.—but to make things simple, here are a few testing rules that should help you breeze past most common testing mistakes:

  • Always determine a sample size in advance and wait until your experiment is over before looking at “statistical significance.” You can use one of several online sample size calculators to get yours figured out.
  • Run your experiment for a few full business cycles (usually weekly cycles). A normal experiment may run for three or four weeks before you call your result.
  • Choose an overall evaluation criterion (or north star metric) that you’ll use to determine the success of an experiment. We’ll get into this more in Tip 4.
  • Before running the experiment, clearly write your hypothesis (here’s a good article on writing a true hypothesis) and how you plan to follow up on the experiment, whether it wins or loses.
  • Make sure your data tracking is implemented correctly so you’ll be able to pull the right numbers after the experiment ends.
  • Avoid interaction effects if you’re running multiple concurrent experiments.
  • QA your test setup and watch the early numbers for any wonky technical mistakes.

I like to put all of the above fine details in an experiment document with a unique ID so that it can be reviewed later—and so the process can be improved upon with time.

An example of experiment documentation
An example of experiment documentation using a unique ID.
Tip 1: Ensure you take the time to set up the parameters of your A/B test properly before you begin. Early mistakes and careless testing can compromise the results.

Conversion Optimization Tip 2:
Learn how to analyze an A/B test

The ability to analyze your test after it has run is obviously important as well (and can be pretty nuanced depending on how detailed you want to get).

For instance, do you call a test a winner if it’s above 95% statistical significance? Well, that’s a good place to begin, but there are a few other considerations as you develop your conversion optimization chops:

  • Does your experiment have a sample ratio mismatch?
    Basically, if your test was set up so that 50% of traffic goes to the control and 50% goes to the variant, your end results should reflect this ratio. If the ratio is pretty far off, you may have had a buggy experiment. (Here’s a good calculator to help you determine this.)
  • Bring your data outside of your testing tool.
    It’s nice to see your aggregate data trends in your tool’s dashboard, and their math is a good first look, but I personally like to have access to the raw data. This way you can analyze it in Excel and really trust it. You can also import your data to Google Analytics to view the effects on key segments.

This can also open up the opportunity for further insights-driven experiments and personalization. Does one segment react overwhelmingly positive to a test you’ve run? Might be a good opportunity to implement personalization.

Checking your overall success metric first (winner, loser, inconclusive) and then moving to a more granular analysis of segments and secondary effects is common practice among CRO practitioners.

Here’s how Chris McCormick from PRWD explains the process:

Once we have a high level understanding of how the test has performed, we start to dig below the surface to understand if there are any patterns or trends occurring. Examples of this would be: the day of the week, different product sets, new vs returning users, desktop vs mobile etc.

Also, there are tons of great A/B test analysis tools out there, like this one from CXL:

AB Test Calculator
Tip 2: Analyze your data carefully by ensuring that your sample ratio is correct. Then export it to a spreadsheet where you can check your overall success metric before moving on to more granular indicators.

Conversion Optimization Tip 3:
Learn how to design your experiments

At the beginning, it’s important to consider the kind of experiment you want to run. There are a few options in terms of experimental design (at least, these are the most common ones online):

  1. A/B/n test
  2. Multivariate test
  3. Bandit test

A/B/n test

An A/B/n test is what you’re probably most used to.

It splits traffic equally among two or more variants and you determine which test won based on its effect size (assuming that other factors like sample size and test duration were sufficient).

ABCD Test Example
An A/B test with four variants: Image source

Multivariate test

In a multivariate test, on the other hand, you can test several variables on a page and hope to learn what the interaction effects are among elements.

In other words, if you were changing a headline, a feature image, and a CTA button, in a multivariate test you’d hope to learn which is the optimal combination of all of these elements and how they affect each other when grouped together.

A Multivariate Test

Generally speaking, it seems like experts run about ten a/b tests for every multivariate test. The strategy I go by is:

  • Use A/B testing to determine best layouts at a more macro-level.
  • Use MVT to polish the layouts to make sure all the elements interact with each other in the best possible way.

Bandit test

Bandits are a bit different. They are algorithms that seek to automatically update their traffic distribution based on indications of which result is best. Instead of waiting for four weeks to test something and then exposing the winner to 100% traffic, a bandit shifts its distribution in real time.

Experimental Design: Bandits

Bandits are great for campaigns where you’re looking to minimize regrets, such as short-term holiday campaigns and headline tests. They’re also good for automation at scale and targeting, specifically when you have lots of traffic and targeting rules and it’s tough to manage them all manually.

Unfortunately, while they are simpler from an experimental design perspective, they are much harder for engineers to implement technically. This is probably why they’re less common in the general marketing space, but an interesting topic nonetheless. If you want to learn more about bandits, read this article I wrote on the topic a few years ago.

Tip 3: Consider the kind of experiment you want to run. Depending on your needs, you might run an A/B/n test, a multivariate test, a bandit test, or some other form of experimental design.

Conversion Optimization Tip 4:
Choose your OEC

Returning to a point made earlier, it’s important to choose which north star metric you care about: this is your OEC (Overall Evaluation Criterion). If you don’t state this and agree upon it up front as stakeholders in an experiment, you’re welcoming the opportunity for ambiguous results and cherry-picked data.

Basically, we want to avoid the problem of HARKing: hypothesizing after results are known.

Twitter, for example, wrote on their engineering blog that they solve this by stating their overall evaluation criterion up front:

One way we guide experimenters away from cherry-picking is by requiring them to explicitly specify the metrics they expect to move during the set-up phase….An experimenter is free to explore all the other collected data and make new hypotheses, but the initial claim is set and can be easily examined.

The term OEC was popularized by Ronny Kohavi at Microsoft, and he’s written many papers that include the topic, but the sentiment is widely known by people who run lots of experiments. You need to choose which metric really matters, and which metric you’ll make decisions with.

Tip 4: In order to avoid ambiguous or compromised data, state your OEC (Overall Evaluation Criterion) before you begin and hold yourself to it. And never hypothesize after results are known.

Conversion Optimization Tip 5:
Some companies shouldn’t A/B test

You can still do optimization without A/B testing, but not every company can or should run A/B tests.

It’s a simple mathematical limitation:

Some businesses just don’t have the volume of traffic or discrete conversion events to make it worth running experiments.

Getting an adequate amount of traffic to a test ultimately helps ensure its validity, and you’ll need this as part of your sample size to ensure a test is cooked.

In addition, even if you could possibly squeeze out a valid test here and there, the marginal gains may not justify the costs when you compare it to other marketing activities in which you could engage.

That said, if you’re in this boat, you can still optimize. You can still set up adequate analytics, run user types on prototypes and new designs, watch session replays, and fix bugs.

Running experiments is a ton of fun, but not every business can or should run them (at least not until they bring some traffic and demand through the door first).

Tip 5: Determine whether your company can or even should run A/B tests. Consider both your volume of traffic and the resources you’ll need to allocate before investing the time.

Conversion Optimization Tip 6:
Landing pages help you accelerate and simplify testing

Using landing pages is correlated with greater conversions, largely because using them makes it easier to do a few things:

  • Measure discrete transitions through your funnel/customer journey.
  • Run controlled experiments (reducing confounding variables and wonky traffic mixes).
  • Test changes across templates to more easily reach a large enough sample size to get valid results.

To the first point, having a distinct landing page (i.e. something separate and easier to update than your website) gives you an easy tracking implementation, no matter what your user journey is.

For example, if you have a sidebar call to action that brings someone to a landing page, and then when they convert, they are brought to a “Thank You” page, it’s very easy to track each step of this and set up a funnel in Google Analytics to visualize the journey.

Google Analytics Funnel

Landing pages also help you scale your testing results while minimizing the resource cost of running the experiment. Ryan Farley, co-founder and head of growth at LawnStarter, puts it this way:

At LawnStarter, we have a variety of landing pages….SEO pages, Facebook landing pages, etc. We try to keep as many of the design elements such as the hero and explainer as similar as possible, so that way when we run a test, we can run it sitewide.

That is, if you find something that works on one landing page, you can apply it to several you have up and running.

Tip 6: Use landing pages to make it easier to test. Unbounce lets you build landing pages in hours—no coding required—and conduct unlimited A/B tests to maximize conversions.

Conversion Optimization Tip 7:
Build a growth model for your conversion funnel

Creating a model like this requires stepping back and asking, “how do we get customers?” From there, you can model out a funnel that best represents this journey.

Most of the time, marketers set up simple goal funnel visualization in Google Analytics to see this:

Google Analytics Funnel Visualization

This gives you a lot of leverage for future analysis and optimization.

For example, if one of the steps in your funnel is to land on a landing page, and your landing pages all have a similar format (e.g. offers.site.com), then you can see the aggregate conversion rate of that step in the funnel.

More importantly, you can run interesting analyses, such as path analysis and landing page comparison. Doing so, you can compare apples to apples with your landing pages and see which ones are underperforming:

Landing Page Comparison
The bar graph on the right allows you to quickly see how landing pages are performing compared to the site average.

I talk more about the process of finding underperforming landing pages in my piece on content optimization if you want to learn step-by-step how to do that.

Tip 7: Model out a funnel that represents the customer journey so that you can more easily target underperforming landing pages and run instructive analyses focused on growth.

Conversion Optimization Tip 8:
Pick low hanging fruit in the beginning

This is mostly advice from personal experience, so it’s anecdotal: when you first start working on a project or in an optimization role, pick off the low hanging fruit. By that, I mean over-index on the “ease” side of things and get some points on the board.

It may be more impactful to set up and run complex experiments that require many resources, but you’ll never pull the political influence necessary to set these up without some confidence in your abilities to get results as well as in the CRO process in general.

To inspire trust and to be able to command more resources and confidence, look for the easiest possible implementations and fixes before moving onto the complicated or risky stuff.

And fix bugs and clearly broken things first! Persuasive copywriting is pretty useless if your site takes days to load or pages are broken on certain browsers.

Tip 8: Score some easy wins by targeting low hanging fruit before you move on to more complex optimization tasks. Early wins give you the clout to drive bigger experiments later on.

Conversion Optimization Tip 9:
Where possible, reduce friction

Most conversion optimization falls under two categories (this is simplified, but mostly true):

  • Increasing motivation
  • Decreasing friction

Friction occurs when visitors become distracted, when they can’t accomplish a task, or simply when a task is arduous to accomplish. Generally speaking, the more “nice to have” your product is, the more friction matters to the conversion. This is reflected in BJ Fogg’s behavior model:

BJ FOGGs Behaviour Model

In other words, if you need to get a driver’s license, you’ll put up with pure hell at the DMV to get it, but you’ll drop out of the funnel at the most innocent error message if you’re only trying to buy something silly on drunkmall.com.

A few things that cut down on friction:

  • Make your site faster.
  • Trim needless form fields.
  • Cut down the amount of steps in your checkout or signup flow.

For an example on the last one, I like how Wordable designed their signup flow. You start out on the homepage:

Wordable

Click “Try It Free” and get a Google OAuth screen:

Wordable 0auth

Give permissions:

Wordable permissions

And voila! You’re in:

Wordable Dashboard

You can decrease friction by reducing feelings of uncertainty as well. Most of the time, this is done with copywriting or reassuring design elements.

An example is with HubSpot’s form builder. We emphasize that it’s “effortless” and that there is “no technical expertise required” to set it up:

Hubspot Form Builder

(And here’s a little reminder that HubSpot integrates beautifully with Unbounce, so you’ll be able to automatically populate your account with lead info collected on your Unbounce landing pages.)

Tip 9: Cut down on anything that makes it harder for users to convert. This includes making sure your site is fast and trimming any forms or steps that aren’t necessary for checkout or signup.

Conversion Optimization Tip 10:
Help increase motivation

The second side of the conversion equation, as I mentioned, is motivation.

An excellent way to increase the motivation of a visitor is simply to make the process of conversion…fun. Most tasks online don’t need to be arduous or frustrating, we’ve just made them that way due to apathy and error.

Take, for example, your standard form or survey. Pretty boring, right?

Well, today, enough technological solutions exist to implement interactive or conversational forms and surveys.

One such solution is Survey Anyplace. I asked their founder and CEO, Stefan Debois, about how their product helps motivate people to convert, and here’s what he said:

An effective and original way to increase conversion is to use an interactive quiz on your website. Compared to a static form, people are more likely to engage in a quiz, because they get back something useful. An example is Eneco, a Dutch Utility company: in just 6 weeks, they converted more than 1000 website visitors with a single quiz.

Full companies have been built on the premise that the typical form is boring and could be made more fun and pleasant to complete (e.g. TypeForm). Just think, “how can I compel more people to move through this process?”

Other ways to do this that are quite commonplace involve invoking certain psychological triggers to compel forward momentum:

  • Implement social proof on your landing pages.
  • Use urgency to compel users to act more quickly.
  • Build out testimonials with well-known users to showcase authority.

There are many more ways to use psychological triggers to motivate conversions. Check out Robert Cialdini’s classic book, Influence, to learn more. Also, check out The Wheel of Persuasion for inspiration on persuasive triggers.

Tip 10: Make your conversion process fun in order to compel your visitors to keep moving forward. Increased interactivity, social proof, urgency, and testimonials that showcase authority can all help you here too.

Conversion Optimization Tip 11:
Clarity > Persuasion

While persuasion and motivation are really important, often the best way to convert visitors is to ensure they understand what you’re selling.

Stated differently, clarity trumps persuasion.

Use a five-second test to find out how clear your messaging is.

Conversion Optimization Tip 12:
Consider the “Pre-Click” Experience

People forget the pre-click experience. What does a user do before they hit your landing pages? What ad did they click? What did they search in Google to get to your blog post?

Knowing this stuff can help you create strong message match between your pre-click experience and your landing page.

Sergiu Iacob, SEO Manager at Bannersnack, explains their process for factoring in keywords:

When it comes to organic traffic, we establish the user intent by analyzing all the keywords a specific landing page ranks for. After we determine what the end result should look like, we adjust both our landing page and our in app user journey. The same process is used in the optimization of landing pages for search campaigns.

I’ve recommended the same thing before when it comes to capturing email leads. If you can’t figure out why people aren’t converting, figure out what keywords are bringing them to your site.

Usually, this results in a sort of passive “voice of customer” mining, where you can message match the keywords you’re ranking for with the offer on that page.

It makes it much easier to predict what messages your visitors will respond to. And it is, in fact, one of the cheapest forms of user research you can conduct.

AHRefs Keywords
Using Ahrefs to determine what keywords brought traffic to a page.
Tip 12: Don’t forget the pre-click experience. What do your users do before they hit your landing page? Make sure you have a strong message match between your ads (or emails) and the pages they link to.

Conversion Optimization Tip 13:
Build a repeatable CRO process

Despite some popular blog posts, conversion optimization isn’t about a series of “conversion tactics” or “growth hacks.” It’s about a process and a mindset.

Here’s how Peep Laja, founder of CXL, put it:

The quickest way to figure out whether someone is an amateur or a pro is this: amateurs focus on tactics (make the button bigger, write a better headline, give out coupons etc) while pros have a process they follow.

And, ideally, the CRO process is a never-ending one:

CRO Process

Conversion Optimization Tip 14:
Invest in education for your team

CRO people have to know a lot about a lot:

  • Statistics
  • UX design
  • User research
  • Front end technology
  • Copywriting

No one comes out the gate as a 10 out of 10 in all of those areas (most never end up there either). You, as an optimizer, need to be continuously learning and growing. If you’re a manager, you need to make sure your team is continuously learning and growing.

Conversion Optimization Tip 15:
Share insights

The fastest way to scale and leverage experimentation is to share your insights and learnings among the organization.

This becomes more and more valuable the larger your company grows. It also becomes harder and harder the more you grow.

Essentially, by sharing you can avoid reinventing the wheel, you can bring new teammates up to speed faster, and you can scale and spread winning insights to teams who then shorten their time to testing. Invest in some sort of insights management system, no matter how basic.

Full products have been built around this, such as GrowthHackers’ North Star and Effective Experiments.

Effective Experiments
Tip 15: Share what you learn within your organization. The bigger your company grows, the more important information sharing becomes—but the more difficult it will become as well.

Conversion Optimization Tip 16:
Keep your cognitive biases in check

As the great Richard Feynman once said, “The first principle is that you must not fool yourself and you are the easiest person to fool.”

We’re all afflicted by cognitive biases, ranging from confirmation bias to the availability heuristic. Some of these can really impact our testing programs, specifically confirmation bias (and its close cousin, the Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy) where you only seek out pieces of data that confirm your previous beliefs and throw out those that go against them.

Experimenter Bias

It may be worthwhile (and entertaining) simply to run down Wikipedia’s giant list of cognitive biases and gauge where you may currently be running blind or biases.

Tip 16: Be cognizant of your own cognitive biases. If you’re not careful, they can influence the outcome of your experiments and cause you to miss (or misinterpret) key insights in your data.

Conversion Optimization Tip 17:
Evangelize CRO to your greater org

Having a dedicated CRO team is great. Evangelizing the work you’re doing to the rest of the organization? Even better.

Evangelize your CRO
Spread the word about the importance of CRO within your org.

When an entire organization buys into the value of data-informed decision making and experimentation, magical things can happen. Ideas burst forth, and innovation becomes easy. Annoying roadblocks are deconstructed. HiPPO-driven decision making is deprioritized behind proper experiments.

Things you can do to evangelize CRO and experimentation:

  • Write down your learnings each week on a company wiki.
  • Send out a newsletter with live experiments and experiment results each week to interested parties.
  • Recruit an executive sponsor with lots of internal influence.
  • Sing your praises when you get big wins. Sing it loud.
  • Make testing fun, and make it easier for others to join in and pitch ideas.
  • Make it easier for people outside of the CRO team to sponsor tests.
  • Say the word “hypothesis” a lot (who knows, it might work).

This is all a kind of art; there are no universal methods for spreading the good gospel of CRO. But it’s important that you know it’s probably going to be something of an uphill battle, depending on how big your company is and what the culture has traditionally been like.

Tip 17: Spread the gospel of CRO across your organization in order to ensure others buy into the value of data-driven decision making and experimentation.

Conversion Optimization Tip 18:
Be skeptical with CRO case studies

This isn’t so much a conversion optimization tip as it is life advice: be skeptical, especially when marketing is involved.

I say this as a marketer. Marketers exaggerate stuff. Some marketers omit important details that derail a narrative. Sometimes, they don’t understand p values, or how to set up a proper test (maybe they haven’t read Tip 1 in this article).

In short, especially in content marketing, marketers are incentivized to publish sensational case studies regardless of their statistical merit.

All of that results in a pretty grim standard for the current CRO case study.

Don’t get me wrong, some case studies are excellent, and you can learn a lot from them. Digital Marketer lays out a few rules for detecting quality case studies:

  • Did they publish total visitors?
  • Did they share the lift percentage correctly?
  • Did they share the raw conversions? (Does the lack of raw conversions hurt my case study?)
  • Did they identify the primary conversion metric?
  • Did they publish the confidence rate? Is it >90%?
  • Did they share the test procedure?
  • Did they only use data to justify the conclusion?
  • Did they share the test timeline and date?

Without context or knowledge of the underlying data, a case study might be a whole lot of nonsense. And if you want a good cathartic rant on bad case studies, then Andrew Anderson’s essay is a must-read.

According to a study...
Tip 18: Approach existing material on CRO with a skeptical mindset. Marketers are often incentivized to publish case studies with sensational results, regardless of the quality of the data that supports them.

Conversion Optimization Tip 19:
Calculate the cost of additional research vs. just running it

Matt Gershoff, CEO of Conductrics, is one of the smartest people I know regarding statistics, experimentation, machine learning, and general decision theory. He has stated some version of the following on a few occasions:

  • Marketing is about decision-making under uncertainty.
  • It’s about assessing how much uncertainty is reduced with additional data.
  • It must consider, “What is the value in that reduction of uncertainty?”
  • And it must consider, “Is that value greater than the cost of the data/time/opportunity costs?”

Yes, conversion research is good. No, you shouldn’t run blind and just test random things.

But at the end of the day, we need to calculate how much additional value a reduction in uncertainty via additional research gives us.

If you can run a cheap A/B test that takes almost no time to set up? And it doesn’t interfere with any other tests or present an opportunity cost? Ship it. Because why not?

But if you’re changing an element of your checkout funnel that could prove to be disastrous to your bottom line, well, you probably want to mitigate any possible downside. Bring out the heavy guns—user testing, prototyping, focus groups, whatever—because this is a case where you want to reduce as much uncertainty as possible.

Tip 19: Balance the value of doing more research with the costs (including opportunity costs) associated with it. Sometimes running a quick and dirty A/B test will be sufficient for your needs.

Conversion Optimization Tip 20:
CRO never ends

You can’t just run a few tests and call it quits.

The big wins from the early days of working on a relatively unoptimized site may taper off, but CRO never ends. Times change. Competitors and technologies come and go. Your traffic mix changes. Hopefully, your business changes as well.

As such, even the best test results are perishable, given enough time. So plan to stick it out for the long run and keep experimenting and growing.

Think Kaizen.

Kaizen

Conclusion

There you go, 20 conversion optimization tips. That’s not all there is to know; this is a never-ending journey, just like the process of growth and optimization itself. But these tips should get you started and moving in the right direction.

This article:

20 Conversion Optimization Tips for Zooming Past Your Competition

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Visual Studio Live Share Can Do That?




Visual Studio Live Share Can Do That?

Burke Holland



A few months ago, Microsoft released its free Visual Studio (VS) Live Share service. VS Live Share is Google Docs level collaboration for code. Multiple developers can collaborate on the same file at the same time without ever leaving their own editor.

After the release of Live Share, I realized that many of us have resigned ourselves to being isolated in our code and we’re not even aware that there are better ways to work with a service like VS Live Share. This is partly because we are stuck in old habits and partly because we just aren’t aware of what all VS Live Share can do. That last part I can help with!

In this article, we’ll go over the features and best practices for VS Live Share that make developer collaboration as easy as being an “Anonymous Hippo.”


list of anonymous animals in Google Docs


Google Docs has an interesting way of handling anonymous participants (Large preview)

Share Your Code

Live Share comes as an extension for both Visual Studio and Visual Studio Code (VS Code). In this article, we’re going to focus on VS Code.


vs code live share extension readme page


(Large preview)

You can also install it via the VS Live Share Extension Pack, which includes the following extensions, all of which we are going to cover in this article…

  • VS Live Share
  • VS Live Share Audio
  • Slack Chat extension

Once the extension is installed, you will need to log in to the VS Live Share service. You can do that by opening the Command Palette Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + P and select “Sign In With Browser”. If you don’t log in and you try and start a new sharing session, you will be prompted to log in at that time.


vs code command palette showing option to sign in with browser


Use the VS Code Command Palette to start a new Live Share session (Large preview)

There are several ways to kick off a VS Live Share session. You can do it from the Command Palette, you can click that “Share” button in the bottom toolbar, or you can use the VS Live Share explorer view in the Sidebar.


vs code with boxes drawn around the different parts of the UI that can be used to start a live share session


There are a myriad of ways to start a new VS Live Share session (Large preview)

A link is copied to your clipboard. You can then send that link to others, and they can join your Live Share session — provided they are using VS Code as well. Which, aren’t we all?

Now you can collaborate just like you were working on a regular old Word document:

The other person can not only see your code, but they can edit it, save it, execute it and even debug it. For you, they show up as a cursor with a name on it. You show up in their editor the same way.

The VS Live Share Explorer

The VS Live Share explorer shows up as a new icon in the Action Bar — which is that bar of icons on the far right of my screen (the far left of yours for default Action Bar placement). This is a sort of “ground zero” for everything VS Live Share. From here, you can start sessions, end them, share terminals, servers, and see who is connected.


vs live share viewlet


The VS Live Share Explorer is a heads-up view of all things Live Share (Large preview)

It’s a good idea to bind a keyboard shortcut to this VS Live Share Explorer view so that you can quickly toggle between that and your files. You can do this by pressing Ctrl/Cmd + K (or Ctrl/Cmd + S) and then searching for “Show Live Share”. I bound mine to Ctrl/Cmd + L, which doesn’t seem to be bound to anything else. I find this shortcut to be intuitive (L for Live Share) and easy to hit on the keyboard.


the keyboard binding screen in vs code with a binding created for the vs live share viewlet


You can create a binding for the VS Live Share Explorer viewlet (Large preview)

Share Code Read-Only

When you start a new sharing session, you will be notified thusly and asked if you would like to share your workspace read-only. If you select read-only, people will be able to see your code and follow your movements, but they will not be able to interact.


vs code notification prompting user to choose read-only sharing


Sharing sessions are read-write by default, but you can make them read-only (Large preview)

This mode is useful when you are sharing with someone that you don’t necessarily trust — maybe a vendor, partner or an estranged ex.

It’s also particularly useful for instructors. Note that at the time of this writing, VS Live Share is locked to 5 concurrent users. Since you probably are going to want more than that in read-only mode, especially if you’re teaching a group, you can up the limit to 30 by adding the following line to your User Settings file: Ctrl/Cmd + ,.

"liveshare.features": "experimental"

Change The Default Join Behavior

Anyone with the link can join your Live Share session. When they join, you’ll see a pop-up letting you know. Likewise, when they disconnect, you get notified. This is the default behavior for VS Live Share.


vs code notification with the name of the person who has joined the live share session


VS Code will alert you whenever someone joins your session (Large preview)

It’s a good idea to change this so that you have to manually approve someone before they can join your session. This is to protect you in the case where you go to lunch and forget to disconnect your session. Your co-workers can’t log back in, change one letter in your database connection string and then laugh while you spend the next four hours trying to figure out how your life has gone so horribly wrong.

To enable this, add the following line to your User Settings file Ctrl/Cmd + ,.

"liveshare.guestApprovalRequired": true

Now you’ll be prompted when someone wants to join. If you block someone, they are blocked for the duration of the session. If they try to join again, you won’t be notified and they will be unceremoniously rejected by VS Live Share.

Go and enjoy your lunch. Your computer is safe.

Focus Followers

By default, anyone who joins your Live Share session is “following” you. That means that their editor will load up whatever file you are in and scroll whenever you scroll. Even if you switch files, participants will see exactly what you see.

The second that a person makes changes to a file, they are no longer following you. So if you are both working on a file together, and then you go to a different file, they won’t automatically go with you. That can lead to a lot of confusion with you talking about code in the file you’re in while the other person is looking at something entirely different.

Besides just telling each other where you are (which works, btw), there is a handy command called “Focus Participants” that is in the Command Palette Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + P.


vs code command palette showing live share focus command


Access the “focus” command from the VS Code Command Palette (Large preview)

You can also access it as an icon in the VS Live Share Explorer view.


vs code live share explorer focus icon


Send a follow request by clicking the follow icon in the VS Live Share Explorer viewlet (Large preview)

This will focus your participants on the next thing you click on or scroll to. By default, VS Live Share focus requests are accepted implicitly. If you don’t want people to be able to focus you, you can add the following line to your User Settings file.

"liveshare.focusBehavior": "prompt"

Also note that you can follow participants. If you click on their name in the VS Live Share Explorer view, you will begin to follow them.

Because following is turned off as soon as the other person begins editing code, it can be tough to know exactly when people are following you and when they aren’t. One place you can look is in the VS Live Share Explorer view. It will tell you the file that a person is in, but not whether or not they are following you.

A good practice is to just remember that focus is always changing so people may or may not see what you see at any given time.

Debug As A Team

Participants can share any debug sessions that you run. If you start a debug session, they will get the exact same experience that you do. If it breaks on your side, it breaks on theirs, and they get the full debug view into all of your code.

They can step in, out, over, add watches, evaluate in the Debug Console; any debugging that you can do, they can do too, and they can control it.

Debugging can also be launched by participants. Be default, though, VS Code does not allow your debugger to be started remotely. To enable this, add the following line to your User Settings file Ctrl/Cmd + ,:

"liveshare.allowGuestDebugControl": true

Share Your Terminal

A lot of the work we do as developers isn’t in our code; it’s in the terminal. Some days it seems like I spend about as much time on my terminal as I do in my editor. This means that if you have an error on your terminal or need to type some command, it would be nice if your participants in VS Live Share can see your terminal in addition to your code.

VS Code has an integrated terminal, and you can share it with VS Live Share.


vs code command palette with share terminal selected


Access the “Share Terminal” command from the VS Code Command Palette (Large preview)

When you do this, you have the opportunity to share your terminal as read-only, or as read-write.


vs code prompting to share terminal as read-only or read-write


Always share your terminal read-only unless you absolutely have to share it with write access (Large preview)

By default, you should be sharing your terminal as read-only. When you share your terminal read-write, the user can execute arbitrary commands directly on your terminal. Let that sink in for a moment. That’s heavy.

It goes without saying that having remote write access to someone’s terminal comes with a lot of trust and responsibility. You should only ever share your terminal read-write with people that you trust implicitly. Estranged ex’s are probably off the table.

Sharing your terminal read-only safely allows the person on the other end of the line to see what you are typing and your terminal output in real time, but restricts them from typing anything into that terminal.

Should you find yourself in a scenario where it would be quicker for the other person to just get at your terminal instead of trying to walk you through some wacky command with a ton of flags, you can share your terminal read-write. In this mode, the other person has full remote access to your terminal. Choose your friends wisely.

Share Your localhost

In the video above, the terminal command ends with a link to a site running on http://localhost:8080. With VS Live Share, you can share that localhost so that the other person can access it just like it was their own localhost.

If you are running a shared debug session, when the participant hits that localhost URL on their end, it will break for both of you if a breakpoint is hit. Even better, you can share any TCP process. That means that you can share something like a database or a Redis cache. For instance, you could share your local Mongo DB server. Seriously! This means no more changing config files or trying to get a shared database up. Just share the port for your local Mongo DB instance.

Share The Right Files The Right Way

Sometimes you don’t want collaborators to see certain files. There are likely private keys and passwords in your project that are not checked into source control and not suitable for public viewing. In this case, you would want to hide those files from anyone participating in your Live Share session.

By default, VS Live Share will hide any file that is specified in your .gitignore. If there is a file that you want to hide, just add it to your .gitignore. Note though, that this only hides the file in the project view. If you are in a shared debugging session and you step into a file that is in the .gitignore, it is still loaded up in the editor and your collaborators will be able to see it.

You can get more fine-grained control over how you share files by creating a .vsls.json file.

For instance, if you wanted to make sure that any files that are in the .gitignore are never visible, even during debugging, you can set the gitignore property to exclude.


    "$schema": "http://json.schemastore.org/vsls",
    "gitignore":"exclude"

Likewise, you could show everything in your .gitignore and control file visibilty directly from the .vsls.json file. To do that, set the gitignore to none and then use the excludeFiles and hideFiles properties. Remember — exclude means never visible, and hide means “not visible in the file explorer.”


    "$schema": "http://json.schemastore.org/vsls",
    "gitignore":"none",
    "excludeFiles":[
        "*.env"
    ],
    "hideFiles": [
        "dist"
    ]

Sharing And Extensions

Part of the appeal of VS Code to a lot of developers is the massive extensions marketplace. Most people will have more than a few installed. It’s important to understand how extensions will work, or not work, in the context of VS Live Share.

VS Live Share will synchronize anything that is specific to the context of the project you are sharing. For instance, if you have the Vetur extension installed because you are working with a Vue project, it will be shared across to any participants — regardless of whether or not they have it installed as well. The same is true for other context-specific things, like linters, formatters, debuggers, and language services.

VS Live Share does not synchronize extensions that are user specific. These would be things like themes, icons, keyboard bindings, and so on. As a general rule of thumb, VS Live Share shares your context, not your screen. You can consult the official docs article on this subject for a more in-depth explanation of what extensions you can expect to be shared.

Communicate While You Collaborate

One of the first things people do on their inaugural VS Live Share experience is to try to communicate by typing in code comments. This seems like the write (get it?) thing to do, but not really how VS Live Share was designed to be used.

VS Live Share is not meant to replace your chat client of choice. You likely already have a preferred chat mechanism, and VS Live Share assumes that you will continue to use that.

If you’re already using Slack, there is a VS Code extension called Slack Chat. This extension is still a tad early in its development, but it looks quite promising. It puts VS Code in split mode and embeds Slack on the right-hand side. Even better, you can start a Live Share session directly from the Slack chat.


vs code slack chat extension


The Slack Chat extension puts Slack inside of your editor (Large preview)

Another tool that looks quite interesting is called CodeStream.

CodeStream

While VS Live Share looks to improve collaboration from the editor, CodeStream is aiming to solve that same problem from a chat perspective.

The CodeStream extension allows you to chat directly within VS Code and those chats become part of your code history. You can highlight a chunk of code to discuss and it goes directly into the chat so there is context for your comments. These comments are then saved as part of your Git repo. They also show up in your code as little comment icons, and these comments will show up no matter which branch you are on.

When it comes to VS Live Share, CodeStream offers a complimentary set of features. You can start new sessions directly from the chat pane, as well as by clicking on an avatar. New sessions automatically create a corresponding chat channel that you can persist with the code, or dispose of when you are done.

If chatting isn’t enough to get the job done, and you need to collaborate like it’s 1999, help is just a phone call away.

VS Live Share Audio

While VS Live Share isn’t trying to reinvent chat, it does re-invent your telephone. Kind of.

With the VS Live Share Audio extension, you can call someone directly and do voice chat from within VS Code.


vs code command palette showing start audio call option


Make audio calls from VS Code using the VS Live Share Audio extension (Large preview)

The other person will then get a prompt to join your call.


vs code notification asking if you would like to join the audio call


VS Code will ask you if you want to join an audio call that is in process (Large preview)

You will see a speaker icon in the bottom status bar when you are connected to a call. You can click on that speaker to change your audio device, mute yourself, or disconnect from the call.


vs code options showing options like mute and disconnect for live share audio extension


You have full control over audio settings when in a VS Live Share Audio call (Large preview)

The last tip I’ll give you is probably the most important, and it’s not a fancy feature or obscure setting you didn’t know existed.

Change Your Muscle Memory

We’ve got years of learned behavior when it comes to getting help or sharing our code. The state of developer collaboration tools has been so bad for so long that we are conditioned to paste code into Slack, start an awkward Skype calls that consist mostly of “tell me when you can see my screen”, or crowd around a monitor and point excessively, i.e. stock photo style.


a group of people pointing at a computer screen


(Large preview)

The most important thing you can do to get the most out of VS Live Share is to actually use VS Live Share. And it will have to be a “conscious” effort.

Your brain is good at patterns. You are constantly recognizing and classifying the world around you based on patterns you have identified, and you are so good at it, you don’t even realize you are doing it. You then develop default responses to these patterns. You form instincts. This is why you will default to the old ways of collaboration without even thinking about what you are doing. Before you know it you will be on a Skype call with someone sharing your screen — even if you have Live Share installed.

I’ve written a lot about VS Code and people will ask me from time to time how they can get more productive with their editor. I always say the same thing: the next time you reach for the mouse to do something, stop. Can you do that something with the keyboard instead? You probably can. Look up the shortcut and then make yourself use it. At first it’s going to be slower, but if you are willing to deliberately adopt a different behavior, you will be astonished at how fast your brain will default to the more productive way of doing something.

The same goes for Live Share. You will be on a call sharing your screen when it occurs to you that you could be using Live Share. At that moment, stop; click that “Share” button in the bottom of VS Code.

Yes, the person on the other end may not have the extension installed. Yes, it may take a moment to set it up. But if you work on establishing this behavior now, the next time you go to do this, it will “just work” and it won’t be long before you don’t even have to think about it, and at that point, you will finally have achieved that “Anonymous Hippo” level of collaboration.

More Resources

Smashing Editorial
(rb, ra, il)


See the article here:

Visual Studio Live Share Can Do That?

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Fixed Elements And Overlays In XD: Incredibly Easy And Fun Methods For Your Prototypes




Fixed Elements And Overlays In XD: Incredibly Easy And Fun Methods For Your Prototypes

Manuela Langella



(This article is kindly sponsored by Adobe.) A fixed element is an object you set to a fixed position on the artboard, allowing other items to scroll underneath. This way, you get a realistic simulation of scrolling on desktop and mobile. With the new overlay feature, you can simulate interactions such as lightbox effects and submenus.

How do famous brands use fixed elements and overlays? Well, let’s take a look at some examples to get some inspiration first.


Examples of brands using fixed elements and overlays


From left to right: 1) McDonald’s mobile home 2) A submenu slides up when you click on the hamburger menu. This is an example of an overlay. 3) Netflix’s Italian mobile website home screen. 4) Netflix sets its call to action as a fixed element. When you scroll down, the button stays fixed to the bottom of the screen. 5) Adobe mobile home 6) By clicking on the menu symbol, a submenu comes out as an overlay. (Large preview)

In this tutorial, we will learn how to set a menu bar as a fixed element and how to apply an overlay transition in a prototype, to simulate a menu opening from the click of a button. Both examples will be done in a mobile template, so that we can see our simulation in action directly on our mobile device. I’ve also included an Illustrator file with icons, which you can use to set up your examples quickly.

Let’s get started.

Preparing The Mobile Template

Open Adobe Xd, and choose the “iPhone 6/7/8 Plus” template. Then, go to File → Save As and choose a name to save your file (mine is mobile.xd).




(Large preview)

Let’s create a restaurant app in which people can select what to order from a list of food.

We will create two home layouts. The first one will be a long page, which we will use to see how fixed navigation works. The second will have a full-screen image, and the user will be able to click and open a menu bar that overlays the home screen.

To get started, click on the artboard icon on the left side, and click to the right of your current artboard. This will create a second identical artboard, near the first one.




(Large preview)

Let’s begin to design our elements, starting with the navigation bar. Click on the Rectangle tool (R) and draw a shape 414 pixels wide and 48 pixels tall. Set its color as #DE4F4F.




(Large preview)

I’ve prepared some icons in Illustrator to use in our layout. Just open the Illustrator file I’ve provided, and drag and drop the icons in your library, as shown below:

Large preview

In doing so, your icons will be automatically uploaded to your Adobe XD library, too.

To learn more about how to use libraries in different apps, read my earlier article, in which I go over some examples of how to add icons and elements to a library (in Illustrator, for instance) and then access them by opening that library in other apps (XD, in this case).

Once you have added the icons, open your XD library. You should see the icons in place:




(Large preview)

Drag and drop the icons on your artboard, as shown below. Position them, and make sure they are all about 25 pixels wide.




(Large preview)

Because we need our icons to be white, we have to modify these. We can directly modify them in the library, as demonstrated in my previous tutorial. With that done, we’ll see them updated in XD directly, without having to drag them from the library again.




(Large preview)

Now that the icons we want are in place, let’s create a logo. Let’s call this app “Gusto”. We’ll simply use the Text tool to add it. (I’m using the Leckerli One font here, but feel free to use whichever you like.) Align the logo to the middle of the navigation bar by clicking “Align center (horizontally)” in the right sidebar.




(Large preview)

Group all of the navigation elements together, and call the group “Menu”. To do this, select all elements in the left panel, right-click and choose “Group”.




(Large preview)




(Large preview)

Let’s add a beautiful hero image. I selected one from Pexels. Drag it on your artboard, and resize its height to 380 pixels.




(Large preview)

Now, click on Rectangle tool (R), and draw a rectangle the same size as the hero image, and place it on the image. Set a gradient for the rectangle’s color, using the values shown in the image below.




(Large preview)

(If you’d like more information about gradients, feel free to see my previous tutorial on how to apply them in XD.)

Insert some white text on the hero image and a circle for a button. Place a little circle with a number on the cart icon as well; we will need it later.




(Large preview)

Next, let’s increase the artboard’s height. We have to do that in order to insert new elements and to create the scrolling simulation.

After double-clicking on the artboard, set its height to 1265 pixels. Be sure that “Scrolling” is set to “Vertical” and that the “Viewport Height” is set to 736 pixels. A little blue marker will allow you to set the scrolling boundary towards the bottom of the artboard, as seen below:




(Large preview)

Let’s add in our content: Gusto’s mouthwatering menu. Click on the Rectangle tool (R) to create a rectangle for the picture that we will add.




(Large preview)

Drag and drop a picture directly into the box we just created; the image will automatically fit in it. Click on it once, and drag the little white circle from an angle inwards, in order to round all of the angles. Their values should be around 25, as shown in the picture below. Get rid of the border by unchecking the border value in the right sidebar.

Large preview

Click on the Text tool (T), and write a title on the right side of the image. I chose Lato as the font, at 14 pixels. Feel free to use another font, but maintain the 14-pixel size.




(Large preview)

Grab the Text tool (T) again, and write some lines for the description (Lato, 10 pixels) and for the price (Lato, 16 pixels).




(Large preview)

Take the Rectangle tool (R) and draw a rectangle of 100 by 30 pixels. Color it with the same orange we used on the button for the hero image; add the text “Add to Cart” with the Text tool (T); and add the cart icon from the library. All of these steps are covered in the short video below:

Finally, click on “Repeat Grid” to create a grid for this section. Once that’s done, we can change images and text easily, as shown in the video below:

If you want to learn more about how to create grids, follow my tutorial.

I used the following pictures from Pexels:

  • https://www.pexels.com/photo/close-up-of-food-247685/
  • https://www.pexels.com/photo/food-dinner-pasta-spaghetti-8500/
  • https://www.pexels.com/photo/selective-focus-photography-of-beef-steak-with-sauce-675951/
  • https://www.pexels.com/photo/food-plate-chocolate-dessert-132694/
  • https://www.pexels.com/photo/bread-food-sandwich-wood-62097/

Add some titles, descriptions and buttons.




(Large preview)

Finally, let’s add a rectangle for the footer, with the text “Gusto” in the center. Set the rectangle’s fill color to #211919.




(Large preview)

Yes! We’ve completed the first template design. Let’s set up our second template before we begin prototyping.

For our second mobile layout, just copy and paste the navigation and hero section from the first layout, and size the hero image to be full screen. Then, add a “Try Now” button to it.

In the short video below, I show you how to copy and paste elements into the second artboard, create a new button with the Rectangle tool (R) and write text on it with the Text tool (T).




(Large preview)

Excellent! Let’s move on and create our prototypes.

Setting Fixed Elements

We want to make the top navigation of our layout fixed, making it stick to its position as we scroll the artboard.

Click on your “Menu” group to select it, and select “Fixed Position” in the right sidebar.




(Large preview)

Important: In order for all elements to scroll under the menu, the menu should be on top of all other elements. Simply place the menu folder at the top, in the left sidebar.




(Large preview)

Now, to see your fixed navigation in action, simply click on the “Desktop Preview” button and try scrolling. You should see this:

Large preview

Tremendously simple, isn’t it?

Setting Overlay Elements

To see how overlays work in XD, we first need to create the elements that will be overlaid. When you click an item in the menu, what would you expect to happen? Exactly: A submenu should appear.

Let’s create three different submenus, like the ones in the image below, using the Rectangle tool (R). I chose a rectangle because the menu will overlay the screen, so it will cover not the whole artboard but just a part of it.

Follow the video below to see how I created the three overlay menus. You will see that I used the Rectangle tool (R), Line tool (L) and Text tool (T). We’re using rectangles to create the menu backgrounds because we need an object to overlay the screen. I’ve included the icons in the Adobe Illustrator file.

Below, you’ll see how I use “Repeat Grid” and how I modify elements inside of it.

Here is the final result:




(Large preview)

We will work on the second home layout at this point.

Set the visual mode to “Prototype”, selecting it from the top left of the screen.




(Large preview)

Next, double-click on the little hamburger menu icon, and drag and drop the little blue arrow onto the “Overlay 1” artboard. When the popup window appears, choose “Overlay” and “Slide right”. Then, click the “Desktop Preview” button to see it in action.

Large preview

Let’s do the same thing with the user icon and cart icon. Double-click on the user icon in Prototype mode, and drag and drop the little blue arrow onto the “Overlay 2” artboard. When the popup window appears, choose “Overlay” and “Slide left”. Then, click the “Desktop Preview” button to see it in action.

Large preview

Now, double-click on the cart icon in Prototype mode, and drag and drop the little blue arrow onto the “Overlay 3” artboard. When the popup windows appears, choose “Overlay” and “Slide left”. Click the “Desktop Preview” button again to see it work.

Large preview

We’re done! These great new features are super-easy to learn, and they’ll add a new level of interactivity simulation to your prototypes.

Quick tip: Want to preview the layout on your phone? Just upload your XD file to Creative Cloud, download the XD app for mobile, and open your document.

Here’s what we have learned in this tutorial:

  • set and create mobile layouts and elements,
  • set fixed elements,
  • use overlays to simulate a click-to-open submenu.

Where would you use fixed elements or overlays? Feel free to share your examples in the comments below!

Smashing Editorial
(il, yk)


Excerpt from: 

Fixed Elements And Overlays In XD: Incredibly Easy And Fun Methods For Your Prototypes

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Expert Brand Building Tips From Klaviyo’s Ecommerce Summit, Part Three

Klaviyo brand building

Welcome to Part Three of my blog series covering just a few of the things I learned as an attendee at Klaviyo: BOS – a wonderful two-day summit run by one of my favorite local startups. In Part One I focused on how ecommerce companies can attract and convert website traffic to their businesses with session recaps of “Using Google To Grow Your Online Store,” “SEO for Ecommerce,” and “You Got Them To Your Site – What Now?” In Part Two I shared email design tips for nurturing and retaining website leads from these two top-notch sessions: “Email A/B Testing: Beyond the…

The post Expert Brand Building Tips From Klaviyo’s Ecommerce Summit, Part Three appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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Expert Brand Building Tips From Klaviyo’s Ecommerce Summit, Part Three

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6 Things You Need to Know About CRO & Social Login

cro-social-login

Entrepreneurs are always trying to figure out how to engage their user more and boost their website’s conversion rate. One way to do that is through social sign-on, also referred to as social login or lazy sign-in. With social login, users can access your website using the social account IDs that they already have instead of setting up new login details for your website. And they don’t have to remember a new set of login credentials. Simply put, social login enhances a website’s user experience while allowing marketers to collect more accurate user data, including gender, age, interests, relationship status and a…

The post 6 Things You Need to Know About CRO & Social Login appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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6 Things You Need to Know About CRO & Social Login

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Designing A Textbox, Unabridged




Designing A Textbox, Unabridged

Shane Hudson



Ever spent an hour (or even a day) working on something just to throw the whole lot away and redo it in five minutes? That isn’t just a beginner’s code mistake; it is a real-world situation that you can easily find yourself in especially if the problem you’re trying to solve isn’t well understood to begin with.

This is why I’m such a big proponent of upfront design, user research, and creating often multiple prototypes — also known as the old adage of “You don’t know what you don’t know.” At the same time, it is very easy to look at something someone else has made, which may have taken them quite a lot of time, and think it is extremely easy because you have the benefit of hindsight by seeing a finished product.

This idea that simple is easy was summed up nicely by Jen Simmons while speaking about CSS Grid and Piet Mondrian’s paintings:

“I feel like these paintings, you know, if you look at them with the sense of like ‘Why’s that important? I could have done that.’ It’s like, well yeah, you could paint that today because we’re so used to this kind of thinking, but would you have painted this when everything around you was Victorian — when everything around you was this other style?”

I feel this sums up the feeling I have about seeing websites and design systems that make complete sense; it’s almost as if the fact they make sense means they were easy to make. Of course, it is usually the opposite; writing the code is the simple bit, but it’s the thinking and process that goes into it that takes the most effort.

With that in mind, I’m going to explore building a text box, in an exaggeration of situations many of us often find ourselves in. Hopefully, by the end of this article, we can all feel more emphatic to how the journey from start to finish is rarely linear.

A Comprehensive Guide To User Testing

So you think you’ve designed something that’s perfect, but your test tells you otherwise. Let’s explore the importance of user testing. Read more →

Brief

We all know that careful planning and understanding of the user need is important to a successful project of any size. We also all know that all too often we feel to need to rush to quickly design and develop new features. That can often mean our common sense and best practices are forgotten as we slog away to quickly get onto the next task on the everlasting to-do list. Rinse and repeat.

Today our task is to build a text box. Simple enough, it needs to allow a user to type in some text. In fact, it is so simple that we leave the task to last because there is so much other important stuff to do. Then, just before we pack up to go home, we smirk and write:

<input type="text">

There we go!

Oh wait, we probably need to hook that up to send data to the backend when the form is submitted, like so:

<input type="text" name="our_textbox">

That’s better. Done. Time to go home.

How Do You Add A New Line?

The issue with using a simple text box is it is pretty useless if you want to type a lot of text. For a name or title it works fine, but quite often a user will type more text than you expect. Trust me when I say if you leave a textbox for long enough without strict validation, someone will paste the entire of War and Peace. In many cases, this can be prevented by having a maximum amount of characters.

In this situation though, we have found out that our laziness (or bad prioritization) of leaving it to the last minute meant we didn’t consider the real requirements. We just wanted to do another task on that everlasting to-do list and get home. This text box needs to be reusable; examples of its usage include as a content entry box, a Twitter-style note box, and a user feedback box. In all of those cases, the user is likely to type a lot of text, and a basic text box would just scroll sideways. Sometimes that may be okay, but generally, that’s an awful experience.

Thankfully for us, that simple mistake doesn’t take long to fix:

<textarea name="our_textbox"></textarea>

Now, let’s take a moment to consider that line. A <textarea>: as simple as it can get without removing the name. Isn’t it interesting, or is it just my pedantic mind that we need to use a completely different element to add a new line? It isn’t a type of input, or an attribute used to add multi-line to an input. Also, the <textarea> element is not self-closing but an input is? Strange.

This “moment to consider” sent me time traveling back to October 1993, trawling through the depths of the www-talk mailing list. There was clearly much discussion about the future of the web and what “HTML+” should contain. This was 1993 and they were discussing ideas such as <input type="range"> which wasn’t available until HTML5, and Jim Davis said:

“Well, it’s far-fetched I suppose, but you might use HTML forms as part of a game playing interface.”

This really does show that the web wasn’t just intended to be about documents as is widely believed. Marc Andreessen suggested to have <input type="textarea"> instead of allowing new lines in the single-line text type, [saying]: (http://1997.webhistory.org/www.lists/www-talk.1993q4/0200.html)

“Makes the browser code cleaner — they have to be handled differently internally.”

That’s a fair reason to have <textarea> separate to text, but that’s still not what we ended up with. So why is <textarea> its own element?

I didn’t find any decision in the mailing list archives, but by the following month, the HTML+ Discussion Document had the <textarea> element and a note saying:

“In the initial design for forms, multi-line text fields were supported by the INPUT element with TYPE=TEXT. Unfortunately, this causes problems for fields with long text values as SGML limits the length of attributea literals. The HTML+ DTD allows for up to 1024 characters (the SGML default is only 240 characters!)”

Ah, so that’s why the text goes within the element and cannot be self-closing; they were not able to use an attribute for long text. In 1994, the <textarea> element was included, along with many others from HTML+ such as <option> in the HTML 2 spec.

Okay, that’s enough. I could easily explore the archives further but back to the task.

Styling A <textarea>

So we’ve got a default <textarea>. If you rarely use them or haven’t seen the browser defaults in a long time, then you may be surprised. A <textarea> (made almost purely for multi-line text) looks very similar to a normal text input except most browser defaults style the border darker, the box slightly larger, and there are lines in the bottom right. Those lines are the resize handle; they aren’t actually part of the spec so browsers all handle (pun absolutely intended) it in their own way. That generally means that the resize handle cannot be restyled, though you can disable resizing by setting resize: none to the <textarea>. It is possible to create a custom handle or use browser specific pseudo elements such as ::-webkit-resizer.


The default <code>&lt;textarea&gt;</code> looks very small with a grey border and three lines as a resize handle.


A default textarea with no styling (Large preview)

It’s important to understand the defaults, especially because of the resizing ability. It’s a very unique behavior; the user is able to drag to change the size of the element by default. If you don’t override the minimum and maximum sizes then the size could be as small as 9px × 9px (when I checked Chrome) or as large as they have patience to drag it. That’s something that could cause mayhem with the rest of the site’s layout if it’s not considered. Imagine a grid where <textarea> is in one column and a blue box is in another; the size of the blue box is purely decided by the size of the <textarea>.

Other than that, we can approach styling a <textarea> much the same as any other input. Want to change the grey around the edge into thick green dashes? Sure here you go: border: 5px dashed green;. Want to restyle the focus in which a lot of browsers have a slightly blurred box shadow? Change the outline — responsibly though, you know, that’s important for accessibility. You can even add a background image to your <textarea> if that interests you (I can think of a few ideas that would have been popular when skeuomorphic design was more celebrated).

Scope Creep

We’ve all experienced scope creep in our work, whether it is a client that doesn’t think the final version matches their idea or you just try to squeeze in a tiny tweak and end up taking forever to finish it. So I ( enjoying creating the persona of an exaggerated project manager telling us what we need to build) have decided that our <textarea> just is not good enough. Yes, it is now multi-line, and that’s great, and yes it even ‘pops’ a bit more with its new styling. Yet, it just doesn’t fit the very vague user need that I’ve pretty much just thought of now after we thought we were almost done.

What happens if the user puts in thousands of words? Or drags the resize handle so far it breaks the layout? It needs to be reusable, as we have already mentioned, but in some of the situations (such as a ‘Twittereqsue’ note taking box), we will need a limit. So the next task is to add a character limit. The user needs to be able to see how many characters they have left.

In the same way we started with <input> instead of <textarea>, it is very easy to think that adding the maxlength attribute would solve our issue. That is one way to limit the amount of characters the user types, it uses the browser’s built-in validation, but it is not able to display how many characters are left.

We started with the HTML, then added the CSS, now it is time for some JavaScript. As we’ve seen, charging along like a bull in a china shop without stopping to consider the right approaches can really slow us down in the long run. Especially in situations where there is a large refactor required to change it. So let’s think about this counter; it needs to update as the user types, so we need to trigger an event when the user types. It then needs to check if the amount of text is already at the maximum length.

So which event handler should we choose?

  • change
    Intuitively, it may make sense to choose the change event. It works on <textarea> and does what it says on the tin. Except, it only triggers when the element loses focus so it wouldn’t update while typing.
  • keypress
    The keypress event is triggered when typing any character, which is a good start. But it does not trigger when characters are deleted, so the counter wouldn’t update after pressing backspace. It also doesn’t trigger after a copy/paste.
  • keyup
    This one gets quite close, it is triggered whenever a key has been pressed (including the backspace button). So it does trigger when deleting characters, but still not after a copy/paste.
  • input
    This is the one we want. This triggers whenever a character is added, deleted or pasted.

This is another good example of how using our intuition just isn’t enough sometimes. There are so many quirks (especially in JavaScript!) that are all important to consider before getting started. So the code to add a counter that updates needs to update a counter (which we’ve done with a span that has a class called counter) by adding an input event handler to the <textarea>. The maximum amount of characters is set in a variable called maxLength and added to the HTML, so if the value is changed it is changed in only one place.

var textEl = document.querySelector('textarea')
var counterEl = document.querySelector('.counter')
var maxLength = 200
    
textEl.setAttribute('maxlength', maxLength)
textEl.addEventListener('input', (val) => 
var count = textEl.value.length
counterEl.innerHTML = $count/$maxLength
})

Browser Compatibility And Progressive Enhancement

Progressive enhancement is a mindset in which we understand that we have no control over what the user exactly sees on their screen, and instead, we try to guide the browser. Responsive Web Design is a good example, where we build a website that adjusts to suit the content on the particular size viewport without manually setting what each size would look like. It means that on the one hand, we strongly care that a website works across all browsers and devices, but on the other hand, we don’t care that they look exactly the same.

Currently, we are missing a trick. We haven’t set a sensible default for the counter. The default is currently “0/200” if 200 were the maximum length; this kind of makes sense but has two downsides. The first, it doesn’t really make sense at first glance. You need to start typing before it is obvious the 0 updates as you type. The other downside is that the 0 updates as you type, meaning if the JavaScript event doesn’t trigger properly (maybe the script did not download correctly or uses JavaScript that an old browser doesn’t support such as the double arrow in the code above) then it won’t do anything. A better way would be to think carefully beforehand. How would we go about making it useful when it is both working and when it isn’t?

In this case, we could make the default text be “200 character limit.” This would mean that without any JavaScript at all, the user would always see the character limit but it just wouldn’t feedback about how close they are to the limit. However, when the JavaScript is working, it would update as they type and could say “200 characters remaining” instead. It is a very subtle change but means that although two users could get different experiences, neither are getting an experience that feels broken.

Another default that we could set is the maxlength on the element itself rather than afterwards with JavaScript. Without doing this, the baseline version (the one without JS) would be able to type past the limit.

User Testing

It’s all very well testing on various browsers and thinking about the various permutations of how devices could serve the website in a different way, but are users able to use it?

Generally speaking, no. I’m consistently shocked by user testing; people never use a site how you expect them to. This means that user testing is crucial.

It’s quite hard to simulate a user test session in an article, so for the purposes of this article, I’m going to just focus on one point that I’ve seen users struggle with on various projects.

The user is happily writing away, gets to 0 characters remaining, and then gets stuck. They forget what they were writing, or they don’t notice that it had stopped typing.

This happens because there is nothing telling the user that something has changed; if they are typing away without paying much attention, then they can hit the maximum length without noticing. This is a frustrating experience.

One way to solve this issue is to allow overtyping, so the maximum length still counts for it to be valid when submitted but it allows the user to type as much as they want and then edit it before submission. This is a good solution as it gives the control back to the user.

Okay, so how do we implement overtyping? Instead of jumping into the code, let’s step through in theory. maxlength doesn’t allow overtyping, it just stops allowing input once it hits the limit. So we need to remove maxlength and write a JS equivalent. We can use the input event handler as we did before, as we know that works on paste, etc. So in that event, the handler would check if the user has typed more than the limit, and if so, the counter text could change to say “10 characters too many.” The baseline version (without the JS) would no longer have a limit at all, so a useful middle ground could be to add the maxlength to the element in the HTML and remove the attribute using JavaScript.

That way, the user would see that they are over the limit without being cut off while typing. There would still need to be validation to make sure it isn’t submitted, but that is worth the extra small bit of work to make the user experience far better.


An example showing “17 characters too many” in red text next to a <code>&lt;textarea&gt;</code>.


Allowing the user to overtype (Large preview)

Designing The Overtype

This gets us to quite a solid position: the user is now able to use any device and get a decent experience. If they type too much it is not going to cut them off; instead, it will just allow it and encourage them to edit it down.

There’s a variety of ways this could be designed differently, so let’s look at how Twitter handles it:


A screenshot from Twitter showing their textarea with overtyped text with a red background.


Twitter’s <textarea> (Large preview)

Twitter has been iterating its main tweet <textarea> since they started the company. The current version uses a lot of techniques that we could consider using.

As you type on Twitter, there is a circle that completes once you get to the character limit of 280. Interestingly, it doesn’t say how many characters are available until you are 20 characters away from the limit. At that point, the incomplete circle turns orange. Once you have 0 characters remaining, it turns red. After the 0 characters, the countdown goes negative; it doesn’t appear to have a limit on how far you can overtype (I tried as far as 4,000 characters remaining) but the tweet button is disabled while overtyping.

So this works the same way as our <textarea> does, with the main difference being the characters represented by a circle that updates and shows the number of characters remaining after 260 characters. We could implement this by removing the text and replacing it with an SVG circle.

The other thing that Twitter does is add a red background behind the overtyped text. This makes it completely obvious that the user is going to need to edit or remove some of the text to publish the tweet. It is a really nice part of the design. So how would we implement that? We would start again from the beginning.

You remember the part where we realized that a basic input text box would not give us multiline? And that a maxlength attribute would not give us the ability to overtype? This is one of those cases. As far as I know, there is nothing in CSS that gives us the ability to style parts of the text inside a <textarea>. This is the point where some people would suggest web components, as what we would need is a pretend <textarea>. We would need some kind of element — probably a div — with contenteditable on it and in JS we would need to wrap the overtyped text in a span that is styled with CSS.

What would the baseline non-JS version look like then? Well, it wouldn’t work at all because while contenteditable will work without JS, we would have no way to actually do anything with it. So we would need to have a <textarea> by default and remove that if JS is available. We would also need to do a lot of accessibility testing because while we can trust a <textarea> to be accessible relying on browser features is a much safer bet than building your own components. How does Twitter handle it? You may have seen it; if you are on a train and your JavaScript doesn’t load while going into a tunnel then you get chucked into a decade-old legacy version of Twitter where there is no character limit at all.

What happens then if you tweet over the character limit? Twitter reloads the page with an error message saying “Your Tweet was over the character limit. You’ll have to be more clever.” No, Twitter. You need to be more clever.

Retro

The only way to conclude this dramatization is a retrospective. What went well? What did we learn? What would we do differently next time or what would we change completely?

We started very simple with a basic textbox; in some ways, this is good because it can be all too easy to overcomplicate things from the beginning and an MVP approach is good. However, as time went on, we realized how important it is to have some critical thinking and to consider what we are doing. We should have known a basic textbox wouldn’t be enough and that a way of setting a maximum length would be useful. It is even possible that if we have conducted or sat in on user research sessions in the past that we could have anticipated the need to allow overtyping. As for the browser compatibility and user experiences across devices, considering progressive enhancement from the beginning would have caught most of those potential issues.

So one change we could make is to be much more proactive about the thinking process instead of jumping straight into the task, thinking that the code is easy when actually the code is the least important part.

On a similar vein to that, we had the “scope creep” of maxlength, and while we could possibly have anticipated that, we would rather not have any scope creep at all. So everybody involved from the beginning would be very useful, as a diverse multidisciplinary approach to even small tasks like this can seriously reduce the time it takes to figure out and fix all the unexpected tweaks.

Back To The Real World

Okay, so I can get quite deep into this made-up project, but I think it demonstrates well how complicated the most seemingly simple tasks can be. Being user-focussed, having a progressive enhancement mindset, and thinking things through from the beginning can have a real impact on both the speed and quality of delivery. And I didn’t even mention testing!

I went into some detail about the history of the <textarea> and which event listeners to use, some of this can seem overkill, but I find it fascinating to gain a real understanding of the subtleties of the web, and it can often help demystify issues we will face in the future.

Smashing Editorial
(ra, il)


See the original post – 

Designing A Textbox, Unabridged

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Get Your Mobile Site Ready For The 2018 Holiday Season




Get Your Mobile Site Ready For The 2018 Holiday Season

Suzanne Scacca



After reading the title of this article, it might seem like it’s jumping the gun, but with retailers turning on holiday music and putting out holiday-related displays earlier and earlier every year, your consumers are primed to start thinking about the holidays earlier, too. In fact, a study done by the Tampa Bay Times revealed that in-store shoppers were exposed to holiday music as early as October 22 in 2017.


Holiday music in retail


Results from TBT’s survey on when holiday music starts (Source: Tampa Bay Times) (Large preview)

Of course, e-commerce handles the holiday season a bit differently than brick-and-mortar. It’s not really necessary to announce promotions or run sales in late October or early November. However, that doesn’t mean you should wait until the last minute to prepare your mobile website for the holidays.

In this article, I’m going to give you a quick rundown of what happened during the 2017 holiday sales season and, in particular, what role mobile played in it. Then, we’re going to dig into holiday design and marketing tactics you can use to boost sales through your mobile website for the 2018 holiday season.

Recommended reading: How Mobile Web Design Affects Local Search (And What To Do About It)

A Recap Of The 2017 Holiday Sales Season

Before we get started, I want to quickly add a disclaimer:

This particular section focuses on e-commerce statistics because this kind of data is readily available. Something like the total number of page visits, subscribed readers, and leads generated… well, it’s not.

So, although I only use data to express how important mobile was to 2017 holiday sales, keep in mind that the tips that follow pertain to all websites. Even if your site doesn’t expressly sell goods or services, blogs and other content-driven sites can take advantage of this, too!

Now, let’s take a look at the numbers:

Total Retail Sales

The National Retail Federation calculated the total amount of retail sales–online and in-store–to be $691.9 billion between November and December, a 5.5% bump from 2016.

Total e-Commerce Sales

Adobe put the total amount of e-commerce sales during that same timeframe at $108.15 billion in 2017.


2017 holiday e-commerce revenue


Adobe’s stats on 2016 and 2017 holiday e-commerce revenue (Source: Adobe) (Large preview)

e-Commerce Sales By Device

Adobe takes it even further and breaks down the share of revenue by device:


Device-specific sales during 2017 holidays


Breakdown of desktop, smartphone and tablet sales for 2017 holiday season (Source: Adobe) (Large preview)

e-Commerce Sales vs. Traffic

While smartphone and tablet sales still trail those on desktop, there are a couple interesting things to note here. For starters, desktop revenue has mostly flatlined year-over-year whereas mobile continues to grow. In addition, there’s an interesting disparity between how much traffic comes from each device and what percentage of revenue it generates:


Traffic vs. revenue breakdown


Traffic vs. revenue for desktop, smartphone, tablet (Source: Adobe) (Large preview)

Pay close attention to desktop and smartphone. As you can see, more visits stem from smartphones than any other device and, yet, desktop leads the way in conversions:


Conversion rates by device


Statista shows the breakdown between desktop, smartphone, and tablet conversions in Q1 2018 (Source: Statista) (Large preview)

Is this indicative of a lack of trust in smart devices to handle purchases?

In all likelihood, it probably isn’t. Data from other sources indicates that on holidays, in particular, mobile reigns supreme in terms of visits and conversions:

  • Thanksgiving Day: 62% of traffic / 46% of purchases.
  • Christmas Day: 68% of traffic / 50% of purchases.

Also, let’s not forget to take into account the strengths of mobile devices within the shopper’s experience. According to the four micro-moments as defined by Google, a large number of mobile users commonly search for the following:

  • “I want to know.”
  • “I want to go.”
  • “I want to do.”
  • “I want to buy.”

The second and third are clearly indicative of a searcher’s desire to find something outside their devices (and their homes) to spend money on. That might even be so for the fourth, though it could also be an indication that they want to do their research on mobile and complete the purchase on desktop.

Either way, we know that smartphones tend to be a primary facilitator in the customer’s journey and not something that’s putting an end to the shopping experience as a whole.

Recommended reading: Designing For Micro-Moments

5 Tips To Prepare Your Mobile Site For The 2018 Holiday Season

While the overall numbers indicate that desktop is the leading platform for holiday sales, it’s not a universal rule that can be applied to each and every day in November and December. This is why your own data will have to play a big role in the design choices you make for your mobile site this season.

You have to admit, no matter how stressed or unhappy you might feel around the holidays, there is something nice about encountering just the right hint of holiday “cheer”. And that’s one of the keys to doing this right: finding the right amount of holiday flavor to infuse into your website.

Before we get into what you can do to spruce up your mobile web design, I want to remind you that security and speed are critical elements to check off your list before November gets here. These might not be in your realm of responsibilities, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t keep an eye on them.

If you’re doing all this design work in anticipation of boosting conversions over the holidays, don’t let it all be for nothing by forgetting about performance and security essentials. To protect your site from potentially harmful traffic surges, start with this front-end performance checklist. With regards to security, you can use these security improvement tips.

Now, let’s talk about the five ways in which you can prepare your mobile website for the 2018 holiday season:

1. Study Last Year’s Data

If your website has been live and actively doing business for more than a year, you need to start with the data from 2017. Using Google Analytics and your CRM platform, locate answers to the following questions:

What was the prominent device that generated traffic? Sales?

Google Analytics allows you to divvy up traffic based on technology in a number of ways:

Under Browser & OS, you can sort visitors by browser:


Google Analytics browser data


Google Analytics shows which browsers users visited from (Source: Google Analytics) (Large preview)

There is a small tab at the top of the table for “Operating System”. Click that to reveal which OS were used:


Google Analytics operating system data


Google Analytics breaks down traffic by operating system (Source: Google Analytics) (Large preview)

You can use the MobileOverview tab to look at the simple breakdown between desktop, mobile, and tablet users.


Google Analytics device data


Google Analytics division between device traffic (Source: Google Analytics) (Large preview)

Really, your goal here is to weed out desktop users so you can focus strictly on mobile traffic as you assess the following data points.

When did your site experience an increase in traffic in November or December?

Every website’s holiday traffic history will look a little different. Take mine, for example:


A sample Google Analytics holiday traffic chart


An example of holiday traffic up and downs in Google Analytics (Source: Google Analytics) (Large preview)

My business really isn’t affected by the holidays at all… except that I know things are going to be super quiet on and around Thanksgiving and the major holidays in December. This is still important information for me to have.

For businesses that directly sell products or services through their site or content-based sites that plan publication schedules based on traffic, you’ll likely see a different trajectory in terms of highs and lows.

When did sales start to increase (if they don’t coincide with traffic)?

Again, for some of you, the matter of sales is irrelevant if you don’t offer any through your site. For everyone else, however, use the Google Analytics Conversions tab along with sales logged through your payment gateway or CRM to check this number.

Just remember that you have to activate the Conversions module in Google Analytics if you want it to track that data. If you didn’t remember last year, put it in place for this year.

Did the holiday uptick remain consistent until the end of the season or were there temporary dropoffs?

Much of this has to do with how you promote holiday-related events, promotional offers or content through your website. If you consistently market around the holidays from November 1 to the end of the year, you should see relatively steady traffic and sales.

Some days, of course, may be slower than others (like during workdays or earlier in the season), so it’s good to get a sense for the ebb and flow of your site’s holiday traffic. On the other hand, your website might be a major draw only on special sales days and the holidays themselves, so you can use this data to harness your energy for a big push on the days when it’ll have the greatest impact.

Try to identify patterns, so you can plan your design and marketing strategy accordingly.

When did traffic and sales return to their usual amount?

At some point, your site is going to see a dip in activity. There are some businesses that embrace this.

Let’s use Xfinity as an example. Around mid-November of last year, this is the holiday-centric message the top of the home page was pushing:


Xfinity holiday promotion


Xfinity promotes ways to make your home holiday ready (Source: Xfinity) (Large preview)

A month later, on December 9, any mention of the holidays was gone and replaced by a promotion of the upcoming Olympic Winter Games.


Xfinity December promotion


Xfinity stops promoting holidays in December (Source: Xfinity) (Large preview)

One can only assume that a major sporting event like the Olympics helps Xfinity sign more subscribers than trying to capture last-minute sales for the holidays.

Logically, this makes sense. December is a busy time for families. They’re planning travel, purchasing gifts and running around town in preparation for the upcoming celebrations. Most people probably don’t have time to set up a new cable or Internet package and wait around for Xfinity to configure it then.

Bottom line: it’s okay if your holiday-related traffic and sales drop off earlier than December 31. Study your data and let your user behavior guide you in your mobile design and promotion strategy.

What were the most popular sources for mobile traffic?

It’s actually not enough to identify the most popular sources of mobile traffic for your site. Sure, you want to know if organic SEO and social media promotional efforts worked to bring traffic to it… but it won’t really matter if those visitors abandoned the site without taking action.

When you start digging through the ways in which you acquired mobile visitors, make sure to review the sources and keywords used against other telling metrics, like:

  • Bounce rate
  • Time on site
  • Pages visited

This will give you a good sense for what sources — e.g. keywords, PPC ads, social media content, promotional backlinks from other sites — that attracted high-quality leads to it during the holiday season.

What were the most/least successful promotions?

One more thing to look at is what exactly performed the best between November and December with mobile visitors.

Did you run a pop-up promoting free shipping that was dismissed by most mobile visitors, but greatly taken advantage of by those on desktop? Did your custom home page banner touting an upcoming Black Friday sale get more clicks than the home page banner otherwise does at other times of the year? And what pathway resulted in the most conversions?

Dig into what exactly it was that appealed to your mobile visitors. Then, as you work on this year’s plan, focus on reproducing that success.

2. Assess The Navigation

The navigation plays two important roles on a website:

  1. High-level tabs inform visitors on what they’ll find on the site; essentially answering the question, “Is this of relevance to me?”
  2. The navigation itself provides visitors with shortcuts to parts of the site that matter most to them, simplifying their pathway to conversion.

When reviewing your navigation in the context of holiday traffic, you must ensure that it fulfills both of these roles.

Let’s look at two websites that provide relevant links during the holidays while also streamlining the visitors’ journey from entry to holiday-related pages.

Food52 is an online hub for people who enjoy cooking. You can buy kitchen gadgets from the site and peruse a whole bunch of content related to food and cooking.

I want to call out a number of things Food52 does especially well in terms of navigation:


Thanksgiving categories on Food52


The Food52 home page includes Thanksgiving-related categories (Source: Food52) (Large preview)

  1. The hamburger menu is prominently displayed in the top-left, which is exactly where visitors’ eyes will go as they follow the Z-shaped pattern for reading.
  2. The shopping cart, search bar shortcut and profile link are also displayed in the top header, making it easy to navigate to elements that support the shopping experience.
  3. If you scroll down on the home page (as I’ve done in the screenshot above), Food52 includes a good mix of Thanksgiving-related content along with its standard fare. In addition, it includes categories that help users filter through content that’s most relevant to them.

One other thing I’d like to point out is the navigation itself:


Simplified mobile navigation from Food52


Simplified and customized navigation from Food52 for Thanksgiving (Source: Food52) (Large preview)

There are a number of things you’ll notice:

  • The mobile navigation is quite simplified. Despite how many categories and types of pages the site has, the navigation keeps this from being an overwhelming choice.
  • There are special tabs for Thanksgiving and Holiday. This will get users directly to content related to the holiday they’re cooking for.
  • The Hotline — which is its customer service forum — is also featured in the mobile navigation. This element is especially important around the holidays when visitors have questions they need answered quickly.

L.L.Bean is another website that handles mobile navigation well.


L.L.Bean Navigation


L.L.Bean puts the essentials in the navigation (Source: L.L.Bean) (Large preview)

As you can see, there are four buttons located within the mobile header:

  • Hamburger navigation icon: bolded and well-placed;
  • L.L.Bean logo for easy backtracking to the home page;
  • A shopping cart icon which will keep stored items top-of-mind with mobile users;
  • An ever-present search bar to speed up navigation even further.

Once a mobile user expands the hamburger navigation, they encounter this:


L.L.Bean hamburger navigation


L.L.Bean prioritizes customer service and gifts around the holidays (Source: L.L.Bean) (Large preview)

As you can see, “Call Us” is the first option available within the mobile navigation. Again, with people in a rush and trying to get purchases done right over the holidays, having a direct line of communication to the company is important. The account link and “Ship To” personalization are also nice touches as these icons keep conversion top-of-mind.

Now, looking down the navigation, you’ll see this is a pretty standard mega menu. However, take note that at the very top of this category (as is the case for all others) appears a page for “Gifts”. This is not something you see the rest of the year, so that’s another holiday-related touch meant to streamline searches and sales.

3. Use Add-ons At Checkout

Here is everything you need to know to optimize conversions at mobile checkout. If I can add an additional two cents to this matter, though, I’d like to briefly talk about add-ons at checkout… but only around the holidays.

Typically, I believe that a fully streamlined checkout process is essential to capturing as many conversions as possible on mobile devices. It’s hard enough typing out all that information (if it doesn’t auto-populate) and trusting that devices and websites will keep payment information secure.

However…

When it comes to designing the checkout for holiday shoppers, I think it’s at least worth experimenting with add-ons. For example:

  • Promo codes
  • Free delivery options
  • Shorter, but more premium delivery or pick up in store options
  • Gift wrapping.

Nordstrom doesn’t even wait for visitors to get to the checkout to promote this.


Nordstrom free shipping


Nordstrom promotes free shipping and returns right away (Source: Nordstrom) (Large preview)

The very top of the site has a sticky bar promoting the free shipping and returns offer. This way, visitors are already in the mindset that they can get their Black Friday purchases or holiday gifts for even cheaper than planned.

Fitbit has another example of this I really like:


Fitbit holiday promotions


Fitbit promotes sales and free expedited shipping (Source: Fitbit) (Large preview)

The top-half of the Fitbit homepage gets visitors into the mindset that there are cost savings galore here. Not only are items on sale, but certain orders come with free and expedited shipping. And the site clearly states when the sale ends, which will keep customers from getting upset if gifts don’t arrive on time. (It will also probably motivate them to get their shopping done sooner if they want to cash in on the sale.)

So all appropriate expectations regarding pricing and shipping are set right from the very get-go, making checkout go more smoothly.

I know that some may argue these will be bad for UX (and normally I’d join them), but I don’t see them as distractions during the holidays. This is an expensive and busy time of year.

Anything you can add to checkout that says, “Hey, we’re thinking about you and want to make this holiday season go just a little more smoothly” would go over well with your users.

4. Give Images A Seasonal Touch

Images are a tricky thing this time of year. You want to use them to appeal to holiday-minded visitors, but you don’t want to overdo it because images add a lot of pressure to your server. You need your site running fast, so be smart about what you do with them.

  1. Resize them before you ever add them to your site. There’s no need to use oversized images if they’re going to appear smaller online.
  2. Optimize your images with compression tools before and after they’re added to the design. This will free up some space they would otherwise take.
  3. If your users’ journey starts above-the-fold, you might want to consider lazy-loading images.

That said, images can go a long way in communicating to visitors that your site and business are ready to spread some holiday cheer without having to ever explicitly say it. This might be the ideal choice for those of you who design websites for global audiences. Perhaps you’d rather use an image that evokes a festive feeling because you don’t want to unintentionally offend anyone who doesn’t celebrate the holiday your copy calls express attention to.

Here is a great example from Uncommon Goods:


Uncommon Goods holiday home page


Uncommon Goods holiday home page (Source: Uncommon Goods) (Large preview)

I wouldn’t necessarily say the images used here are festive, but there are unique elements that evoke a certain association with the holidays. Like the color green used within the photos. Or the partial glances of what appear to be snow globes. They’re seasonal elements, but not necessarily relegated to Christmas, Hanukkah or Kwanzaa.

Then, there’s the United States Postal Service (USPS) website. Granted, this website targets visitors within the United States, but it remains mindful of the differences in religions practiced and holidays celebrated.


USPS festive image


USPS uses a non-denominational image to promote the holidays (Source: USPS) (Large preview)

The message remains neutral as does the image itself. The USPS is simply trying to help people quickly and festively send holiday cards, gifts and other items to distant relatives and friends.

5. Review The Customer Journey

The factor of speed is a big one when it comes to designing the customer journey. While the navigation cuts down on any unnecessary steps that might be taken when visitors can afford a more leisurely pace, your design should expedite the rest.

In other words:

  • Start talking about holiday-related content, products, pages and links right on the home page.
  • Make sure you have at least one mention above-the-fold, whether it’s in the navigation, in a blog link or in a seasonal promo.
  • Use the data from last year to streamline the ideal pathway from the home page to conversion.
  • Walk through that pathway as a visitor on both desktop and mobile. Is it as clear, concise and direct as possible?
  • Check the responsiveness of the pathway. Your site, in general, needs to be responsive, but if you’re optimizing a certain journey for visitors and you want them to convert on mobile, then extra care needs to be taken.

Below is another example from the Food52 website from the holidays. As you can see in this snippet, two kinds of holiday-related content are promoted. What’s cool about them, though, is that it’s not necessarily in-your-face.


Food52’s festive home page design


Food52 adds a holiday touch to its home page design and copy (Source: Food52) (Large preview)

The relish recipe could easily be used any time of the year. However, because pomegranates are often considered a winter food, this falls into the category of holiday-related content. The second post is more blatant about attracting holiday readers.

The final element in this screenshot is also worth taking note of. To start, it appears they’ve customized the copy specifically for this time of year. All it takes is one addition of the word “joyfully” to let visitors know that Food52 took time to make its site just a little more festive.

I also want to give them kudos for including a newsletter subscription box here and in other key areas of the site.

If the research from Adobe is right and only about half of mobile visitors convert, then this is a smart design choice. This way, Food52 can collect visitor information on mobile and contact them later. When interested visitors receive the reminder at a more convenient time and place, they can hop onto their desktop or other preferred device and finish the conversion process.

Another site which I think handles the customer journey optimization well is Cracker Barrel.


Cracker Barrel home page design


Cracker Barrel home page design (Source: Cracker Barrel) (Large preview)

Cracker Barrel doesn’t overdo it when it comes to designing for the holidays. Instead, it’s developed a series of calls-to-action that set certain types of visitors on the right path.

The first one features an image of what looks like a holiday feast with the CTA “Order Heat N’ Serve”. That’s brilliant. If people are taking the time to visit this site right before Thanksgiving, it’s probably to see if they can get help preparing their major feast… which it appears they can.

The second section sort of looks festive, though I’d still say they play it safe with choice of color, texture and gift card image. With a CTA of “Buy Gift Cards”, they’re now appealing to holiday shoppers. Not only can you get a whole feast conveniently prepared by Cracker Barrel, but you can buy gifts here, too.

Sometimes designing for the holidays isn’t about the blatant use of snowflake imagery or promoting recipes for cooking a turkey. Sometimes it’s about understanding what your users’ particular needs are at that time and helping setting them on that exact journey right away.

Wrap-Up

I understand that there are ways to add a dancing Santa to a site or to spruce up pop-ups with animated text and images, but I think subtler is better.

It’s kind of like the whole holiday music and decorations thing. How many times have you gone to your local drug store at the end of October for the purposes of getting Halloween candy, only to be met by an entire aisle full of holiday decorations? Or maybe you entered a department store like Macy’s in November, thinking you’ll beat the crazy holiday crowds. And, yet, holiday music is already playing. It’s overkill.

If you want to impress mobile visitors with your website around the holidays, focus on making this a worthwhile experience. Optimize your server for high volumes of traffic, put extra security in place, reorganize the navigation and add some small festive touches to your design that call attention to the most relevant parts of your site at this time of year.

Smashing Editorial
(ra, yk, il)


Excerpt from: 

Get Your Mobile Site Ready For The 2018 Holiday Season

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