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The Rise Of Intelligent Conversational UI




The Rise Of Intelligent Conversational UI

Burke Holland



For a long time, we’ve thought of interfaces strictly in a visual sense: buttons, dropdown lists, sliders, carousels (please no more carousels). But now we are staring into a future composed not just of visual interfaces, but of conversational ones as well. Microsoft alone reports that three thousand new bots are built every week on their bot framework. Every. Week.

The importance of Conversational UI cannot be understated, even if some of us wish it wasn’t happening.

The most important advancement in Conversational UI has been Natural Language Processing (NLP). This is the field of computing that deals not with deciphering the exact words that a user said, but with parsing out of it their actual intent. If the bot is the interface, NLP is the brain. In this article, we’re going to take a look at why NLP is so important, and how you (yes, you!) can build your own.

Speech Recognition vs. NLP

Most people will be familiar with Amazon Echo, Cortana, Siri or Google Home, all of which have an interface that is primarily conversational. They are also all using NLP.




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Aside from these intelligent assistants, most Conversational UIs have nothing to do with voice at all. They are text driven. These are the bots we chat with in Slack, Facebook Messenger or over SMS. They deliver high quality gifs in our chats, watch our build processes and even manage our pull requests.




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Conversational UIs built on text are nice because there is no speech recognition component. The text is already parsed.

When it comes to a verbal interaction, the fundamental problem is not recognizing the speech. We’ve mostly got that one down.

OK, so maybe it’s not perfect. I still get voicemails every day like a game of Mad Libs that I never asked to play. iOS just sticks a blank line in whenever they don’t know what exactly was said.




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Google, on the other hand, just tries to guess. Like this one from my father. I have absolutely no idea what this message is actually trying to say other than “Be Safe” which honestly sounds like my mom, and not my dad. I have a hard time believing he ever said that. I don’t trust the computer.




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I’m picking on voice mail transcriptions here, which might be the hardest speech recognition to do given how degraded the audio quality is.

Nevertheless, speech recognition is largely a solved problem. It’s even built right into Chrome and it works remarkably well.




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After we solved the problem of speech recognition, we started to use it everywhere. That was unfortunate because speech recognition on it’s own doesn’t do us a whole lot of good. Interfaces that rely soley on speech recognition require the user to state things a precise way and they can only state the limited number of exact words or phrases that the interface knows about. This is not natural. This is not how a conversation works.

Without NLP, Conversational UI can be true nightmare.

Conversational UI Without NLP

We’re probably all familiar with automated phone menus. These are known as Interactive Voice Response systems — or IVRs for short. They are designed to take the place of the traditional operator and automatically transfer callers to the right place without having to talk to a human. On the surface, this seems like a good idea. In practice, it’s mostly just you waiting while a recorded voice reads out a list of menu items that “may have changed.”




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A 2011 study from New York University found that 83% of people feel IVR systems “provide either no benefit at all, or only a cost savings benefit to the company.” They also noted that IVR systems “score lower than any other service option.” People would literally rather do anything else than use an automated phone menu.

NLP has changed the IVR market rather significantly in the past few years. NLP can pick a user’s intent out of anything they say, so it’s better to just let them say it and then determine if you support the action.

Check out how AT&T does it.

AT&T has a truly intelligent Conversational UI. It uses NLP to let me just state my intent. Also, notice that I don’t have to know what to say. I can fumble all around and it still picks out my intent.

AT&T also uses information that it already has (my phone number) and then leverages text messaging to send me a link to a traditional visual UI, which is probably a much better UX for making a payment. NLP drives the whole experience here. Without it, the rest of the interaction would not be nearly as smooth.

NLP is powerful, but more importantly, it is also accessible to developers everywhere. You don’t have to know a thing about Machine Learning (ML) or Artificial Intelligence (AI) to use it. All you need to how to do is make an AJAX call. Even I can do that!

Building An NLP Interface

So much of Machine Learning still remains inaccessible to developers. Even the best YouTube videos on the subject quickly become hard to follow with subjects like Neural Networks and Gradient Descents. We have, however, made significant progress in the field of Language Processing, to the point that it’s accessible to developers of nearly any skill level.

Natural Language Processing differs based on the service, but the overall idea is that the user has an intent, and that intent contains entities. That means exactly nothing to you at the moment, so let’s work up a hypothetical Home Automation bot and see how this works.

The Home Automation Example

In the field of Natural Language Processing, the canonical “Hello World” is usually a Home Automation demo. This is because it helps to clearly demonstrate the fundamental concepts of NLP without overloading your brain.

A Home Automation Bot is a service that can control hypothetical lights in a hypothetical house. For instance, we might want to say “Turn on the kitchen lights”. That is our intent. If we said “Hello”, we are clearly expressing a different intent. Inside of that intent, there are two pieces of information that we need to complete the action:

  1. The ‘Location’ of the light (kitchen)
  2. The desired state of the lights ‘Power’ (on/off)

These (Location, Power) are known as entities.

When we are finished designing our NLP interface, we are going to be able to call an HTTP endpoint and pass it our intent: “Turn on the kitchen lights.” That endpoint will return to us the intent (Control Lights) and two objects representing our entities: Location and Power. We can then pass those into a function which actually controls our lights…

function controlLights(location, power) 
  console.log(`Turning $power the $location lights`);
  
  // TODO: Call an imaginary endpoint which controls lights   
}

There are a lot of NLP services out there that are available today for developers. For this example, I’m going to show the LUIS project from Microsoft because it is free to use.

LUIS is a completely visual tool, so we won’t actually be writing any code at all. We’ve already talked about Intents and Entities, so you already know most of the terminology that you need to know to build this interface.

The first step is to create a “Control Lights” intent in LUIS.




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Before I do anything with that intent, I need to define my Location and Power entities. Entities can be different types — kind of like types in a programming language. You can have dates, lists and even entities that are related to other entities. In this case, Power is a list of values (on, off) and Location is a simple entity, which can be any value.

It will be up to LUIS to be smart enough to figure out exactly what the Location is.




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Now we can begin to train this model to understand all of the different ways that we might ask it to control the lights in a different location. Let’s think of all the different ways that we could do that:

  • Turn off the kitchen lights;
  • Turn off the lights in the office;
  • The lights in the living room, turn them on;
  • Lights, kitchen, off;
  • Turn off the lights (no location).

As I feed these into the Control Lights intent as utterances, LUIS tries to determine where in the intent the entities are. You can see that because Power is a discreet list of values, it gets that right every time.




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But it has no idea what a Location even is. LUIS wants us to go through this list and tell it where the Location is. That’s done by clicking on a word or group of words and assigning to the right entity. As we are doing this, we are really creating a machine learning model that LUIS is going to use to statistically estimate what qualifies as a Location.




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When I’m done telling LUIS where in these utterances all the locations are, my dashboard looks like this…




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Now we train the model by clicking on the “Train” button at the top. Do you feel like a data scientist yet?

Now I can test it using the test panel. You can see that LUIS is already pretty smart. The Power is easy to pick out, but it can actually pick out Locations it has never seen before. It’s doing what your brain does — using the information that it has to make an educated guess. Machine Learning is equal parts impressive and scary.




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If we try hard enough, we can fool the AI. The more utterances we give it and label, the smarter it will get. I added 35 utterances to mine before I was done and it is close to bullet proof.

So now we get to the important part, which is how we actually use this NLP in an app. LUIS has a “Publish” menu option which allows us to publish our model to the internet where it’s exposed via a single HTTP endpoint. It will look something like this…

https://westus.api.cognitive.microsoft.com/luis/v2.0/apps/c4396135-ee3f-40a9-8b83-4704cddabf7a?subscription-key=19d29a12d3fc4d9084146b466638e62a&verbose=true&timezoneOffset=0&q=

The very last part of that query string is a q= variable. This is where we would pass our intent.

https://westus.api.cognitive.microsoft.com/luis/v2.0/apps/c4396135-ee3f-40a9-8b83-4704cddabf7a?subscription-key=19d29a12d3fc4d9084146b466638e62a&verbose=true&timezoneOffset=0&q=turn on the kitchen lights

The response that we get back looks is just a JSON object.


  "query": "turn on the kitchen lights",
  "topScoringIntent": 
    "intent": "Control Lights",
    "score": 0.999999046
  ,
  "intents": [
    
      "intent": "Control Lights",
      "score": 0.999999046
    ,
    
      "intent": "None",
      "score": 0.0532306843
    
  ],
  "entities": [
    
      "entity": "kitchen",
      "type": "Location",
      "startIndex": 12,
      "endIndex": 18,
      "score": 0.9516622
    ,
    
      "entity": "on",
      "type": "Power",
      "startIndex": 5,
      "endIndex": 6,
      "resolution": 
        "values": [
          "on"
        ]
      
    }
  ]
}

Now this is something that we can work with as developers! This is how you add NLP to any project — with a single REST endpoint. Now you’re free to create a bot with some real brains!

Brian Holt used the browser speech API and a LUIS model to create a voice powered calculator that is running right inside of CodePen. Chrome is required for the speech API.

See the Pen Voice Calculator by Brian Holt (@btholt) on CodePen.

Bot Design Is Still Hard

Having a smart bot is only half the battle. We still need to account for any of the actions that our system might expose, and that can lead to a lot of different logical paths which makes for messy code.

Conversations also happen in stages, so the bot needs to be able to intelligently direct users down the right path without frustrating them or being unable to recover when something goes wrong. It needs to be able to recover when the conversation dies midstream and then starts again. That’s a whole other article and I’ve included some resources below to help.

When it comes to language understanding, the AI platforms are mature and ready to use today. While that won’t help you perfectly design your bot, it will be a key component to building a bot that people don’t hate.

Great UI Is Just Great UI

A final note: As we saw from the AT&T example, a truly smart interface combines great speech recognition, Natural Language Processing, different types of conversational UI (speech and text) and even a visual UI. In short, great UI is just that — great UI — and it is not a zero sum game. Great UIs will leverage all of the technology available to provide the best possible user experience.

Special thanks to Mat Velloso for his input on this article.

Further Resources:

Smashing Editorial
(rb, ra, yk, il)


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The Rise Of Intelligent Conversational UI

What is Knowledge Commerce?

knowledge commerce

The monetization of the process by which you share your knowledge. Benjamin Franklin once said, “An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.” Even with the passing of years, this quote hasn’t lost its meaning. But what if you could create a business entirely out of your knowledge? Would the returns be significantly higher? The answers to the above questions are in this article. The online learning industry continues to grow by leaps and bounds every day. Individuals who have chosen to share their knowledge and expertise digitally have seen amazing returns. However, the truth is, not many people are…

The post What is Knowledge Commerce? appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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What is Knowledge Commerce?

How to create *emotionally relevant* marketing experiences for your shoppers

Marketers have more data than ever before. But even with all of this data, we still aren’t seeing a complete…Read blog postabout:How to create *emotionally relevant* marketing experiences for your shoppers

The post How to create *emotionally relevant* marketing experiences for your shoppers appeared first on WiderFunnel Conversion Optimization.

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How to create *emotionally relevant* marketing experiences for your shoppers

Why I Switched To Sketch For UI Design (And Never Looked Back)

User interface design has changed dramatically in the last few years, as traditional computers have ceded dominance to smaller screens, including tablets, mobile phones, smartwatches and more.
As the craft has evolved, so has its toolset; and from one app to rule them all — looking at you, Photoshop! — we have gotten to a point where it seems like a new contender among UI design tools crops up every month.

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Why I Switched To Sketch For UI Design (And Never Looked Back)

How To Prototype IoT Experiences: Building The Hardware (Part 1)

The world is constantly evolving with frameworks, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and virtual reality (VR). These and many others are opening opportunities to rethink how we approach prototyping: They introduce avenues to marry the digital software with the tangible aspect of the overall user engagement.
This two-article series will introduce readers of different backgrounds to prototyping IoT experiences with minimum code knowledge, starting with affordable proof of concept platforms, before moving to costly commercial offerings.

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How To Prototype IoT Experiences: Building The Hardware (Part 1)

Introducing Crazy Egg Recordings – Know What Visitors Really Do On Your Site

Crazy Egg Recordings

The one piece of information about your website that matters most is: how do your users interact with it? It’s easy to find out what they think about it: you can just ask them. But it’s very hard to find out how real users go about navigating your website. The thing is, that piece of knowledge is absolutely crucial. It’s the acid test for every design decision, because it’s what determines whether a visitor converts or bounces. So, we made Crazy Egg Recordings. Soon, Recordings will let you see multiple sessions of different visitors clicking, scrolling, and navigating throughout your…

The post Introducing Crazy Egg Recordings – Know What Visitors Really Do On Your Site appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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Introducing Crazy Egg Recordings – Know What Visitors Really Do On Your Site

Wow Your Clients, Grow Your Agency – Register for Digital Agency Day 2017

If you could get in a room with digital marketing experts from Google, AdRoll and LinkedIn, what would you ask them? Better yet, what if you could rub shoulders with them without having to leave your desk?

We’re not trying to torture you with hypotheticals. For the second year in a row, Unbounce and HubSpot have teamed up to cregisurate Digital Agency Day: a full day of virtual and in-person events dedicated to the digital agency professional.

And it’s happening very soon: on March 16th, 2017. Completely free.

Register for Digital Agency Day here.

Join expert speakers from the world’s top agencies and agency partners as they share actionable, agency-tailored advice on analytics, reporting, growing retainers, new business strategy, content marketing, conversion rate optimization and much more.

Here’s just a taste of some of the presentations you can expect:

  • Rethinking Retainers & Other Pricing Issues
  • What Your Agency Needs to Execute Content Marketing the Right Way
  • Grow Your Agency With LinkedIn Sponsored Content
  • Extreme Growth with Google AdWords: For Agencies
  • Unifying your Customer Journey: Unlocking the Power of Cross-Device Marketing

Here’s what some of our attendees from last year had to say:

See you then? Click here to register.

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Wow Your Clients, Grow Your Agency – Register for Digital Agency Day 2017

Do Those Magical “Power Words” Really Work to Improve Conversion Rates?

magical-power-words

Would you believe me if I told you that with a few simple strokes on the keyboard, you could tiptoe your way past your audience’s conscious objections, directly influence their subconscious minds, and instantly boost your conversion rates? Just imagine if all that it took to see amazing results in your clickthrough, opt-in, and sales numbers were a few “secret” linguistic tricks people wouldn’t even realize you are using. Now, I know that these are pretty bold claims to make. But over the course of this article, I will prove the unlimited potential of ‘power words’ and teach you how…

The post Do Those Magical “Power Words” Really Work to Improve Conversion Rates? appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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Do Those Magical “Power Words” Really Work to Improve Conversion Rates?

6 Ways To Send Emails Your Customers Will Love

e-mail me candy hearts
Young love in the 21st century, amirite? Image via Shutterstock.
Psst: This post was originally published in 2014, but we recently gave it a refresh during our two-week publishing hiatus. Since launching the Unbounce Marketing Blog, this post has become one of our top-performing posts of all time. We hope you enjoy the read.

Research shows there are over 205,000,000,000 emails sent each day. 205 BILLION.

The average professional sends and receives 122 emails per day and spends 3.2 hours of their working day in their inbox. That’s a lot of competition.

To give yourself the best chance of cutting through with your email marketing, you need to send emails your customers love.

But how?

By thinking about each customer’s current relationship with your business, you can send emails each individual customer will find relevant. Here are six ways you can send emails your customers will love.

1. Segment your users

The most obvious place to start in order to send emails your customers want to see is segmentation. Don’t send everyone the same thing! This sounds obvious, but very few businesses take the time to do any segmentation at all.

There are many, many ways to slice your customer base, ranging from something as basic as RFM:

  • Recency (when did a customer last buy from you)
  • Frequency (how often does a customer buy from you)
  • Monetary Value (how much do they spend)

…to much more complex statistical models that try and factor in a whole range of historical data and future estimates.

intermix
Click for full-size image. Internet Retailer covers this example from Intermix, who used this strategy to increase email conversions by 1,000%.

Even some simple segmentation will put you ahead of the pack. Next time you send out a promotional newsletter I’d recommend having at least two segments: Customers that have purchased before and new customers.

Use simple segments to change your offer in each email you are sending and, ultimately, improve your profit from this campaign.

For example, why not offer new customers — who have subscribed but never bought — a discount. Give past, loyal customers access to a “hidden” series of products for the new season as a reward for their loyalty.

The best part? Implementing this type of segmentation can be as simple as pulling the order history out of your database and adding a true or false value to your email marketing list.

And don’t forget to measure the net result and see how it compares to your normal promotions. I’d be surprised if the results haven’t improved.

Already doing basic segmentation?

A clever, more advanced trick, is to use trigger-based emails to send very specific emails to your customers based on what they do on your site.

Amazon is always a great example of this in action, as they hone in on your browsing history and actively follow-up on-site activity with a series of emails.

Setting up emails like this can be done with good lifecycle email marketing software that allows you to track your customers’ actions and trigger a series of emails to users who look at product category (cameras, for example) but do not checkout.

The point:

The web is a powerful place, and you are now able to access and use more information about your customers than ever before.

Use your customers’ information to segment when sending marketing emails and you’ll be ahead of (or at the very least on par with) your competition!

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2. Set up an automated campaign

Automated emails give you the power to personalize in a way you simply cannot recreate manually. Below are a few examples of quality automated emails that show their power:

1. A founder sending an email within an hour of a customer signing up

At scale this sort of email is impossible to keep on top of if you’re emailing manually. With a little engineering and (ensuring you keep things simple) you can quickly implement an email like this that goes out to customers automatically.

As long as you actually follow up on any responses, you’ll find that this campaign really resonates with new customers.

hellofax founder email

This example from HelloFax is a great one.

2. Drilling down your funnel, like this example from Flightfox

Every business has a funnel of some sort. You should be tracking where your customers are in your funnel and using email to move customers from one step to the next.

The best way to do this is to provide useful information each step of the way. Sending tens, hundreds or thousands of customers an individual email based on where they are in your funnel could not be done manually, but automated emails give you the power to send something individually relevant.

flightfox drilling down funnel email
Click for full-size image

This doesn’t mean you have use formal language or lots of pictures. Take a look at the example above from Flightfox, who used a simple, plain-text question-and-answer format to double the conversions on a lifecycle email.

3. This hyper-relevant example from Amazon

amazon lifecycle email

Sending emails based on a customer’s specific browsing habits is something you could never do with a team of people (it wouldn’t be very efficient!), but using automated emails allows you to trigger an email with content related to your customers’ experiences so far on your website.

Don’t underestimate the power of automated emails!

(I could spend a lot of time going through how to setup automated lifecycle emails, but this slideshow does the job faster and smoother than I can!)

3 Steps To Make Your Lifecycle Emails Soar by — you caught me, it’s me — Chris Hexton.

The point:

  1. Setup an automated email to guide customers through your funnel.
  2. Use a simple, personal question-and-answer style format to make sure the email is helpful.
  3. Consider sending a series of emails, not just one, and don’t be afraid to send the first email a few hours after your customer first triggers the action in question.

3. Send from YOUR email address

I did a search of my inbox the other day for the term “noreply” and got over 1,000 results since the start of March. Admittedly, I get a lot more emails than the average user, but that’s a lot of noreply@domain.com addresses.

These emails were from startups, big brands and everything in between. In many cases they were simple promotional emails or updates.

There is no REAL reason to use a noreply email address for a marketing email. Even if you’re sending the email to hundreds of thousands of people you can use an address like info@yourdomain.com or support@yourdomain.com. Active communication with your customers is the way of the future.

As HubSpot points out in their slideshow, What The F*ck Is Social Media?, brands are winning engagement with their customers at every opportunity across every medium.

There are all sorts of tools out there to help with managing customer responses, my favourite being HelpScout.

Bottom line: you should use a personal email and give your customers the chance to respond if they want, because…

What if your customers have a question about your sale?

What if your customers respond and ask how to setup a new feature?

For every 10% of customers that bother to head back to your site and find your support email or create a ticket, you can guarantee that 90% will simply bail when they can’t hit reply.

Do you want to miss out on 90% of what your customer base are saying? Talking to customers is everything when it comes to running an online business. You can’t chat to them over the counter but you can chat to them via email!

The point:

Use a REAL email address, not noreply@domain.com.

4. Run a simple A/B test

Thanks to awesome tools like Visual Website Optimizer and Unbounce (shameless shelf plug), savvy online businesses use A/B testing to regularly improve their landing pages and funnels.

…but hardly anyone I talk to A/B tests email campaigns like they should. Running an A/B test might sound complex but it can be as simple as you want.

As an example close to home, I have recently been testing the format of my blog post update emails:

  • Do customers prefer to receive the entire post in an email or do they prefer a summary with a link to the blog post?
  • Do customers want to see a “hand-written” synopsis of the post by me (adding a little flare to the summary) or are they happy to simply get to the point?
  • Does having an image in the blog post update email make a difference?

All of these questions stem from wanting to write emails that your customers will love more. Getting customers to open, click and convert from your emails is important, and seeing the results of tests like those above is simple, thanks to the email marketing software on the market today.

So… next time you’re writing a campaign, have it in your head to create a second variation.

  • Test the ‘From’ address (for example, using “Chris from Vero” as opposed to “Chris Hexton” lifted my open rates)
  • Test the subject line (are you better with all caps, no caps, shorter subjects, longer subjects, a subject the same as the heading, etc.)
  • Test the template
  • Test the format
  • Test the offer

…and so on. Here’s the results of a recent A/B test on a subject line I ran. To test a hypothesis I simply removed “[Vero]” from the subject line and changed my approach to try and be mysterious or enticing — interestingly, the open rate dropped dramatically with this variation. Lesson learned!

vero email subject A/B tests
Click for full-size image

The point:

The value of a simple A/B test can be very powerful stuff. With a few extra hours work (or even less), you can find some permanent ways to send emails your customers love.

5. Simplify your copy

Ryan Hoover wrote a great post sharing his theory on Email first startups. He mentions a number of reasons email is a great medium on which to build a business. Email forces you to be simple. There’s no room for bloat and, unless your emails are focused and to the point, they won’t get your readers attention.

Although Ryan was talking about email in the context of starting a business, the same concept applies to any email you send

Simplify your copy, spend more time writing content that relates to where the customer is in their relationship to your business and provide a single call to action. Joanna Wiebe also has some great tips in her article “Tone of Voice 101“.

Here are four steps that you should go through mentally when writing a new email campaign (or any content you’re going to publish):

  1. Would I want to read this? This is really the starting point. When you re-read what you’ve written, you should constantly be asking yourself, “Would I keep reading? Or would I stop?”
  2. Am I speaking as I wish to be spoken to? Tone is hard to master: you need to be yourself and find a “voice” that makes sense to your customers and your business. You should always sense-check whether you’re talking in a way that is respectful, professional and consistent.
  3. Can I cut more out? Most people have a nasty habit of repeating themselves and writing too much. There’s nothing wrong with long copy (it often converts better) but long does not equal effective by default. Get someone to proofread your content and, if you need to, cut the crap!
  4. What is the call to action? Having a single call to action and repeating that CTA is something you should aim for in every email you send out. Keep it simple, keep it direct and make sure your customers get where you’re going with it.

The point:

Review your emails properly before you send them! Focus your emails with consistent, well-written content (take your time) and repeat your single call to action (CTA).

6. Give away your knowledge, for free

A tried and true tactic — customers will love you if you share your secrets with them.

Too many business owners worry about giving away information, as though a successful business is built on ideas alone.

The world’s most successful online business such as 37Signals, HubSpot and Net-a-Porter all use sharing as a core part of their marketing.

Take the 37Signals blog, Signal vs. Noise. Since 1999 they’ve shared their ups, downs and ideas about starting businesses, design and management online. This has led to successful books and has certainly been a dramatic aspect of the success of their products such as Basecamp or Highrise.

Net-a-Porter has always shared great content and style guidance on how to dress and look good. This magazine-first approach is a great way for Net-a-Porter to consistently market to their customers without seeming overbearing by simply offering coupons every week. Customers don’t buy clothes for the sake of buying clothes: they buy clothes to look and feel good.

netaporter 560
Click for full-size image

By sharing the secrets of how to do this Net-a-Porter constantly builds momentum, driving over 30% of their sales via email.

The point:

Give away as much information as you can to your customers. HELP them by teaching and they’ll love you for it. Email is a great medium for sharing content. It’s direct, it’s personal and it’s focused. Embrace this.

Rock and roll!

Focus on making your customers love your emails and you’ll increase your conversions as well. Use the huge amount of data you can now capture about your customers to send smarter emails, not more emails. Make each email count and you’ll be a long way ahead of the competition.

How do you send emails your customers love? Share success stories in the comments!

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6 Ways To Send Emails Your Customers Will Love

Developers "Own" The Code, So Shouldn’t Designers "Own" The Experience?

We’ve all been there. You spent months gathering business requirements, working out complex user journeys, crafting precision interface elements and testing them on a representative sample of users, only to see a final product that bears little resemblance to the desired experience.
Maybe you should have been more forceful and insisted on an agile approach, despite your belief that the organization wasn’t ready? Perhaps you should have done a better job with your pattern portfolios, ensuring that the developers used your modular code library rather than creating five different variations of a carousel.

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Developers "Own" The Code, So Shouldn’t Designers "Own" The Experience?