For a long time, responsive design dominated the web as the format of choice for business and personal sites. Now, however, mobile optimization has begun to gain credence as a potentially preferable strategy. Mobile optimization refers to optimizing a website specifically for mobile devices. Instead of simply compressing and slightly rearranging the content on the screen, you design the entire experience for smaller screens. You’ve probably heard the term “mobile-friendly.” It’s a bit outdated, so even though it sounds like a good thing, it’s not enough. People are using their mobile devices more and more, as I’ll explain in a…
So you’ve trained yourself as a web engineer, and now want to build a blazing fast online shop for your customers. The product list should appear in an instant, and searching should waste no more than a split second either. Is that the stuff of daydreams?
If you’ve been thinking of creating free or premium WordPress themes, well, I hope I can help you avoid some of the mistakes I’ve made over the years. Even though I always strive for good clean code, there are pursuits that still somehow lead me into making mistakes. I hope that I can help you avoid them with the help of this article.
1. Don’t Gradually Reinvent The Wheel Be careful when making things look nice — especially if you create a function that does almost exactly the same thing as another function just to wrap things nicely.
If you’ve been using WordPress for any amount of time, there’s a good chance you’ve come across the following statement: “Free as in speech, not free as in beer.’ If you haven’t, pull up a chair and let’s talk.
WordPress is a free and open-source software (also known as FOSS) project. The explanation of that could easily fill up a separate article, but the TL;DR version is that the software is free to download, use, inspect and modify by anyone who has a copy of it.
While the growing adoption of responsive images cannot be ignored, it can be very difficult to employ the functionality under the constraints of a large CMS like WordPress. Although it is entirely possible to write the feature into your theme on your own, doing so is a challenging and time-consuming endeavour.
Thankfully, with the launch of WordPress 4.4, theme developers and maintainers will find it much easier to introduce responsive image functionality into their themes. In this recent launch, the RICG Responsive Images plugin has been merged into WordPress core, which means that responsive image support now comes as a default part of WordPress. Let’s take a look at how the feature works, and how you can use it to get the best support for your WordPress site.
If I were to ask you what the least used default page type in WordPress is, chances are you’d say the archive template. Or, more likely, you’d probably not even think of the archive template at all — that’s how unpopular it is. The reason is simple. As great as WordPress is, the standard way in which it approaches the archive is far from user-friendly.
Let’s fix that today! Let’s build an archive page for WordPress that’s actually useful. The best part is that you will be able to use it with any modern WordPress theme installed on your website at the moment.
But first, what do we mean by “archive page” exactly?
The Story Of WordPress Archives
In WordPress, you get to work with a range of different page templates and structures in the standard configuration. Looking at the directory listing of the default theme at the time of writing, Twenty Fifteen, we find the following:
404 error page,
archive page (our hero today),
image attachments page,
index page (the main page),
default page template (for pages),
search results page,
single post and attachment pages.
Despite their different purposes, all of these pages are really similar in structure, and they usually only differ in a couple of places and several lines of code. In fact, the only visible difference between the index page and the archive page is the additional header at the top, which changes according to the particular page being viewed.
The idea behind such an archive structure is to provide the blog administrator with a way to showcase the archive based on various criteria, but to do so in a simplified form. At the end of the day, these various archive pages are just versions of the index page that filter content published during a specific time period or by a particular author or with particular categories or tags.
While this sounds like a good idea from a programmer’s perspective, it doesn’t make much sense from the user’s point of view. Or, more accurately, one layer is missing here — a layer that would come between the user’s intent to find content and the individual items in the archive themselves.
Here’s what I mean. Right now, the only built-in way to showcase the archive links on a WordPress website is with a widget. So, if you want to allow visitors to dig into the archive in any clear way, you’d probably have to devote a whole sidebar just to the archive (just to be able to capture different types of organization, such as a date-based archive, a category archive, a tag archive, an author archive and so on).
So, what we really need here is a middleman, a page that welcomes the visitor, explains that they’re in the archive and then points them to the exact piece of content they are interested in or suggests some popular content.
That is why we’re going to create a custom archive page.
How To Build A Custom Archives Page In WordPress
Here’s what we’re going to do in a nutshell. Our custom archive page will be based on a custom page template3. This template will allow us to do the following:
include a custom welcome message (may contain text, images, an opt-in form, etc. — standard WordPress stuff);
list the 15 latest posts (configurable);
display links to the author archive;
display links to the monthly archive;
add additional widget areas (to display things like the most popular content, categories, tags).
Lastly, the page will be responsive and will not depend on the current theme of the website it’s being used on.
That being said, we do have to start by using some theme as the base of our work here. I’ll use Zerif Lite4. I admit, I may be a bit biased here because it is one of our own themes (at ThemeIsle). Nonetheless, it was one of the 10 most popular themes released last year in WordPress’ theme directory, so I hope you’ll let this one slide.
And, hey, if you don’t like the theme, no hard feelings. You can use the approach presented here with any other theme.
Getting Started With The Main File
The best model on which to build your archive page is the page.php file of your current theme, for a couple of reasons:
Its structure is already optimized to display custom content within the main content block.
It’s probably one of the simplest page templates in your theme’s structure.
Therefore, starting with the page.php file of the Zerif Lite theme, I’m going to make a copy and call it tmpl_archives.php.
(Make sure not to call your page something like page-archives.php. All file names starting with page- will be treated as new page templates within the main file hierarchy of WordPress themes5. That’s why we’re using the prefix tmpl_ here.)
Next, all I’m going to do is change one single line in that file:
All this does is fetch the right content file for our archive page.
If you want, you could remove other elements that seem inessential to your archive page (like comments), but make sure to leave in all of the elements that make up the HTML structure. And in general, don’t be afraid to experiment. After all, if something stops working, you can easily bring back the previous code and debug from there.
Also, don’t forget about the standard custom template declaration comment, which you need to place at the very beginning of your new file (in this case, tmpl_archives.php):
/* Template Name: Archive Page Custom */
After that, what we’re left with is the following file structure (with some elements removed for readability):
Next, let’s create the other piece of the puzzle — a custom content file. We’ll start with the content-page.php file by making a copy and renaming it to content-tmpl_archives.php.
In this file, we’re going to remove anything that’s not essential, keeping only the structural elements, plus the basic WordPress function calls:
* The template used to display archive content
<article id="post-<?php the_ID(); ?>" <?php post_class(); ?>>
<h1 class="entry-title"><?php the_title(); ?></h1>
</header><!-- .entry-header -->
<?php the_content(); ?>
<!-- THIS IS WHERE THE FUN PART GOES -->
</div><!-- .entry-content -->
</article><!-- #post-## -->
The placeholder comment visible in the middle is where we’re going to start including our custom elements.
Adding a Custom Welcome Message
This one’s actually already taken care of by WordPress. The following line does the magic:
<?php the_content(); ?>
Adding New Widget Areas
Let’s start this part by setting up new widget areas in WordPress using the standard process. However, let’s do it through an additional functions file, just to keep things reusable from theme to theme.
So, we begin by creating a new file, archives-page-functions.php, placing it in the theme’s main directory, and registering the two new widget areas in it:
/* First archive page widget, displayed to the LEFT. */
'name' => __('Archives page widget LEFT', 'zerif-lite'),
'description' => __('This widget will be shown on the left side of your archive page.', 'zerif-lite'),
'id' => 'archives-left',
'before_widget' => '<div class="archives-widget-left">',
'after_widget' => '</div>',
'before_title' => '<h1 class="widget-title">',
'after_title' => '</h1>',
/* Second archive page widget, displayed to the RIGHT. */
'name' => __('Archives page widget RIGHT', 'zerif-lite'),
'description' => __('This widget will be shown on the right side of your archive page.', 'zerif-lite'),
'id' => 'archives-right',
'before_widget' => '<div class="archives-widget-right">',
'after_widget' => '</div>',
'before_title' => '<h1 class="widget-title">',
'after_title' => '</h1>',
Next, we’ll need some custom styling for the archive page, so let’s also “enqueue” a new CSS file:
wp_enqueue_style('archives-page-style', get_template_directory_uri() . '/archives-page-style.css'); // standard way of adding style sheets in WP.
This is a conditional enqueue operation. It will run only if the visitor is browsing the archive page.
Also, let’s not forget to enable this new archives-page-functions.php file by adding this line at the very end of the current theme’s functions.php file:
Finally, the new block that we’ll use in our main content-tmpl_archives.php file is quite simple. Just place the following right below the call to the_content();:
<?php /* Enabling the widget areas for the archive page. */ ?>
<?php if(is_active_sidebar('archives-left')) dynamic_sidebar('archives-left'); ?>
<?php if(is_active_sidebar('archives-right')) dynamic_sidebar('archives-right'); ?>
<div style="clear: both; margin-bottom: 30px;"></div><!-- clears the floating -->
All that’s left now is to take care of the only missing file, archives-page-style.css. But let’s leave it for later because we’ll be using it as a place to store all of the styles of our custom archive page, not just those for widgets.
Listing the 15 Latest Posts
For this, we’ll do some manual PHP coding. Even though displaying this could be achieved through various widgets, let’s keep things diverse and get our hands a bit dirty just to show more possibilities.
You’re probably asking why the arbitrary number of 15 posts? Well, I don’t have a good reason, so let’s actually make this configurable through custom fields.
Here’s how we’re going to do it:
Setting the number of posts will be possible through the custom field archived-posts-no.
If the number given is not correct, the template will default to displaying the 15 latest posts.
Below is the code that does this. Place it right below the previous section in the content-tmpl_archives.php file, the one that handles the new widget areas.
$how_many_last_posts = intval(get_post_meta($post->ID, 'archived-posts-no', true));
/* Here, we're making sure that the number fetched is reasonable. In case it's higher than 200 or lower than 2, we're just resetting it to the default value of 15. */
if($how_many_last_posts > 200 || $how_many_last_posts < 2) $how_many_last_posts = 15;
$my_query = new WP_Query('post_type=post&nopaging=1');
echo '<h1 class="widget-title">Last '.$how_many_last_posts.' Posts <i class="fa fa-bullhorn" style="vertical-align: baseline;"></i></h1> ';
echo '<div class="archives-latest-section"><ol>';
$counter = 1;
while($my_query->have_posts() && $counter <= $how_many_last_posts)
<li><a href="<?php the_permalink() ?>" rel="bookmark" title="Permanent Link to <?php the_title_attribute(); ?>"><?php the_title(); ?></a></li>
Basically, all this does is look at the custom field’s value, set the number of posts to display and then fetch those posts from the database using WP_Query();. I’m also using some Font Awesome icons to add some flare to this block.
Displaying Links to the Author Archives
(This section is only useful if you’re dealing with a multi-author blog. Skip it if you are the sole author.)
This functionality can be achieved with a really simple block of code placed right in our main content-tmpl_archives.php file (below the previous block):
We’ll discuss the styles in just a minute. Right now, please note that everything is done through a wp_list_authors() function call.
Displaying Links to the Monthly Archives
I’m including this element at the end because it’s not the most useful one from a reader’s perspective. Still, having it on your archive page is nice just so that you don’t have to use widgets for the monthly archive elsewhere.
Here’s what it looks like in the content-tmpl_archives.php file:
Lastly, let’s look at the style sheet and, most importantly, the effect it gives us.
Here’s the archives-page-style.css file:
padding: 10px 0;
.archives-latest-section ol li
border-top: 1px dotted #888;
border-bottom: 1px dotted #888;
padding: 10px 0;
margin: 0 0 20px 0;
.archives-authors-section ul li
padding: 0 10px;
.archives-authors-section ul li a
border-top: 1px dotted #888;
border-bottom: 1px dotted #888;
padding: 15px 0;
.archives-by-month-section p a
@media only screen and (max-width: 600px)
This is mostly typography and not a lot of structural elements, except for the couple of float alignments, plus the responsive design block at the end.
OK, let’s see the result! Here’s what it looks like on a website that already has quite a bit of content in the archive:
How To Integrate This Template With Any Theme
The custom archive page we are building here is for the Zerif Lite theme, in the official WordPress directory. However, like I said, it can be used with any theme. Here’s how to do that:
Take the archives-page-style.css file and the archives-page-functions.php file that we built here and put them in your theme’s main directory.
Edit the functions.php file of your theme and add this line at the very end: require get_template_directory() . '/archives-page-functions.php';.
Take the page.php file of your theme, make a copy, rename it, change the get_template_part() function call to get_template_part( 'content', 'tmpl_archives' );, and then add the main declaration comment at the very beginning: /* Template Name: Archive Page Custom */.
Take the content-page.php file of your theme, make a copy, rename it to content-tmpl_archives.php, and include all of the custom blocks that we created in this guide right below the the_content(); function call.
Test and enjoy.
Here’s what it looks like in the default Twenty Fifteen theme:
We’ve covered a lot of ground in this guide, but a lot can still be done with our archive page. We could widgetize the whole thing and erase all of the custom code elements. We could add more visual blocks for things like the latest content, and so on.
The possibilities are truly endless. So, what would you like to see as an interesting addition to this template? Feel free to share.
Economists have taught us that a lot of choice is not always a good thing. Having many options can lead to “analysis paralysis” and a feeling of being overwhelmed, due to the increased effort required and the level of uncertainty in making the right choice.
With a nearly unlimited pool of WordPress themes to choose from, it becomes so easy to feel overwhelmed and resort to inaction or choosing a low-quality theme.
Economists have taught us that a lot of choice is not always a good thing1. Having many options can lead to “analysis paralysis” and a feeling of being overwhelmed, due to the increased effort required and the level of uncertainty in making the right choice.
With a nearly unlimited pool of WordPress themes to choose from, it becomes so easy to feel overwhelmed and resort to inaction or choosing a low-quality theme. In cases where you have a lot of options, it pays to know exactly what you need.
Put another way, how much easier is buying a bottle of wine when you know that you prefer reds and that your favorite red is Australian Shiraz? This small amount of knowledge cuts a choice between 500 bottles in a store down to 10.
In this post, I’ll share what I believe are the most important factors to consider, so that you know exactly what to bear in mind the next time you’re on the hunt for a good theme.
To start off, let’s answer one of the most common questions asked: Is it worth paying for a WordPress theme, or can you get away with a free one?
1. Price: Free Vs. Premium Themes
Several years ago, the price of a theme was a good indicator of its quality. Free themes were often poorly coded at best, and were used to capture sensitive user data at worst. But times have changed, and developers in the WordPress community have created thousands of great free themes to choose from.
As such, there is no conclusive winner. Both free and premium themes have their pros and cons, which are detailed below.
Pros of Premium Themes
Perhaps the most compelling reason to choose a premium theme is that such themes are typically updated more often. Given the rapid evolution of the WordPress content management system (CMS), having a theme that is regularly updated to patch new security issues is critical.
Less recognizable design
Because free WordPress themes are so popular, it’s not uncommon for tens of thousands of websites to use the same free one. Premium themes are less common, which set them apart a bit more.
Most premium themes include a detailed PDF explaining how to get the most out of them. Such documentation is less common with free themes.
Premium theme developers certainly offer the best support, usually through a combination of a public forum, live chat and an email ticketing system. Free themes usually just have a public forum for support.
No attribution links
Many free themes often require a link to appear in the footer crediting the theme’s author. While this is becoming less common in free themes, you can be sure that no links are required in premium themes.
Cons of Premium Themes
You’ll have to invest anywhere between $50 to $200 in a premium theme.
Most premium themes have their own custom administration panel, with a variety of customization settings, which can take a while to learn and set up.
Premium themes tend to include a lot of bells and whistles, such as multiple slider plugins, a portfolio manager and extra skins. While these do make a theme very versatile, a lot of unwanted features will bloat the theme.
In general, the most important aspect to look for in a theme, whether free or paid, is the quality and care that’s gone into making it. The quality of the code will influence everything we discuss in this article, from security to page speed.
The easiest way to gauge quality is to read what customers are saying. If a theme has a public support forum, read what kinds of issues people are having, and how responsive the developers are in resolving them.
2. Speed: Lightweight Vs. Feature-Heavy Themes
In my last post here on Smashing Magazine, I emphasized the importance of optimizing website speed4. Fast page-loading speed does not just improve the general user experience of a website, but has also been confirmed to improve search engine rankings, conversion rates and, thus, online revenue.
It should come as no surprise that I recommended avoiding sluggish themes like the plague.
Understanding a problem is the first step to avoiding it. So, what causes a theme to drag a website’s page speed into the gutter?
In general, it comes down to three things:
Overuse of large file formats
The keyword here is “overuse,” which admittedly is a bit subjective. Try to steer clear of themes that use a lot of full-width images, background videos, etc. Less is more.
From wildly scaled images to inline CSS injection, poor coding has a significant impact on website performance. As mentioned, poor code usually means that a theme hasn’t been updated in a long time, so always check a theme’s update history.
Here’s a litmus test you can use to figure out how bloated a theme is. Go to the Pingdom Website Speed Test5, enter the URL of a theme’s demo and see how long the page takes to load and how many HTTP requests are made.
Let me give you a quick comparison as a benchmark. Earlier this year, I built two websites with very different theme frameworks. The first website, BrokerNotes6, was built with the Frank7 theme (a very lightweight theme designed for speed). According to Pingdom, the home page makes 38 HTTP requests and loads in under 1 second. 3.9 Mb in bandwidth is way too heavy though.
Now, let’s compare this to Qosy10, a website I built using a relatively feature-heavy theme. As you can see, the home page makes 61 HTTP requests and take just over 2.5 seconds to load. While still not bad, that’s a noticeable increase in loading time.
Themes that make hundreds of HTTP requests before showing any content are not uncommon. Avoid them unless you’re confident that you can slice off some of that fat.
3. Design And User Experience
Of course, the purpose of a theme is to make your website look great and show off your brand in the best possible light. While design can be quite subjective, you will boost your odds of finding a well-designed theme by following a few steps.
First, search on websites where the best designers sell their themes. This might sound obvious but is still worth mentioning. ThemeForest15 is my personal favorite, but plenty of other good ones are out there, including StudioPress16 and Elegant Themes17.
Secondly, spend some time browsing the demo. Does the website feel easy to use? Is there enough white space? Do you get a headache looking at it? Does it excite you? This is where your gut feeling plays an important role.
Finally, be sure to choose a theme that is cross-browser compatible and has been built with accessibility in mind.
While mobile traffic varies between industries, most reports seem to agree that, on average, about 30%18 of all website visits now come from mobile and tablet devices.
Regardless of the exact ratios, there’s no excuse to use anything but a responsive theme.
Thankfully, virtually all reputable themes are mobile-friendly out of the box, so the lack of responsiveness in a theme is really a red flag. Most theme vendors allow you to filter out themes that are not responsive. Another good option is to look through a curated list of responsive themes19.
One of the best ways to determine whether a responsive theme is good or not is to run the demo through Google’s new mobile-friendliness tool20.
When enabled with one of the many good SEO plugins, WordPress is one of the most SEO-friendly CMS’ around.
However, plenty of themes render all manner of on-site SEO mistakes, such as the omission of header and alt tags, full-blown duplicated content and dynamic URL errors.
When choosing a theme, look for “SEO optimized” or “SEO ready” in the theme description, but don’t trust it blindly. A lot of developers include this to check of a box and sell their theme. That being said, knowing that a designer has at least considered SEO when developing their theme does offer some assurance.
A good practice is to install an extension for the Chrome browser, such as MozBar21 or SEO Site Tools22, to run some quick SEO checks on a theme’s demo.
A customization dashboard has become standard in a lot of themes. This saves you the hassle of having to make direct changes to style sheets.
In addition, plugins such as Visual Page Editor make it easy to build complex page structures without having to touch code. While some of these WYSIWYG editors are somewhat limiting, I find that overall they’re very beneficial to getting a website looking very nice with little effort. If a developer has a demo of their administration panel, I’d recommend playing around with it to make sure you can customize everything you need to.
A lot affects the security of a website, including hosting, plugins and password strength. Daniel Pataki has already covered some great steps to secure your WordPress installation28. This should not be an afterthought; rather, consider it when selecting your theme.
As when you’re buying a home, one of the best things you can do to gauge a theme’s security is to read what customers say about it. Unless a theme was created by a trustworthy developer, I avoid any theme that doesn’t have many downloads or reviews.
My advice is to evaluate themes on community websites like ThemeForest, where all customer reviews are displayed by default. This level of transparency tends to reveal the truth about themes, which you wouldn’t get directly from a developer’s website.
While buying a theme directly from its developer’s website is fine, do so only after evaluating it on a community website with transparent reviews.
If a theme has a security loophole, then customers have probably picked up on it and flagged it in their reviews for future customers. While the developer might have fixed such issues, the overall ratings from customers should give you an idea of a theme’s overall quality.
While ticking off all of these boxes might sound ambitious, the truth is that they’re interrelated, and they all come back to a single point: Themes should be built with quality in mind.
One of the best things you can do when choosing a theme is to learn about the person or company who made it. If they have a reputation to live up to, then their themes will undoubtedly be of a higher quality than developers who don’t.
Of course, no theme is perfect, and you’ll almost always have to make some compromises. That being said, with the recommendations in this post, you are hopefully now better informed to avoid the really bad themes and to choose one that is fast, well coded and SEO-friendly and that includes all of the features you need.
Whether you offer free or premium themes, testing should be a major part of your development process. By planning in advance, you can foster a development environment that deters some bugs by design and that helps you prevent others. The aim of this article is to share some of the tricks I use personally during and after development to achieve a bug-free product.
This article is split into three distinct sections:
At the recent WordCamp Edinburgh, I took part in a panel discussion about WordPress theme development and the options available to developers when building themes. The overriding conclusion from the session was that there isn’t a one-size-fits-all answer and that the best method depends on the needs of the website and the capabilities of the developer.
But if you’re starting out building WordPress themes or want to develop a system for building them more efficiently or robustly, how do you decide which approach to take?