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Copyright Law Basics For UK Software Developers

Software developers all over the world can benefit from an increased understanding of intellectual property (IP) laws and how those laws may affect their work. Software programs are often complex works that include both functional and artistic elements and may be covered by a variety of different types of IP laws. This can be very confusing for those who haven’t been taught about IP and can cause them to miss out on opportunities to protect their own work or to accidentally infringe on the work of another.

The purpose of this article is to provide information about one type of IP law, copyright law, for software developers who live or work in the United Kingdom. Below we will discuss the definition of copyright law, the source of UK copyright law, and how it applies to technological works. I’ll also elaborate on what is not covered by copyright law, as well as the UK concepts of fair dealing and moral rights as they are related to copyright law.

Copyright Law Essentials

You can learn more about copyright law in general and about how it applies to software in my previous article. Go to article →

What Is Copyright Law?

Copyright law is a type of intellectual property law that protects creative works, which can include things like plays, movies, drawings, songs, and many other things. Around the world, copyright laws give the authors or creators of literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic works the right to control the ways in which their material may be used. With regard to software, copyright law generally covers the artistic elements of a software program as opposed to the functional elements.

What Is The Source Of Copyright Law In The UK?

Copyright law originated in the United Kingdom from a concept of common law; the Statute of Anne 1709. It became statutory with the passing of the Copyright Act 1911. The current act is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of 1988. Those interested can read the full text here.

The relevant government office for copyright inquiries is the UK Intellectual Property Office. The UK is also a signatory to the Berne Convention, an international agreement concerning copyright law that has been adopted by 172 countries worldwide.

How Does UK Copyright Law Apply Specifically To Technological Works?

Copyright law can apply to all kinds of technological works that are used with computers, tablets, smartphones, or video game systems. This includes apps, computer programs, databases, spreadsheets, screen displays, and even virtual reality environments. Copyright also applies to works that are used or distributed on the internet like websites, blogs, and other online content. In the UK, computer programs are specifically protected as literary works.

Throughout the European Union, the Computer Programs Directive provides guidance regarding the legal protection of computer programs. The Copyright (Computer Programs) Regulations of 1992 extended the rules covering literary works to include computer programs in other European countries as well.

What Is Not Covered By UK Copyright Law?

Copyright law in the UK, as elsewhere, does not protect ideas, procedures, methods of operations, or mathematical concepts (though other types of IP may protect them under certain circumstances). In other words, copyright law is about protecting a particular expression of an idea, not the idea itself, and not functional elements of a work. Additionally, names, titles, short phrases, and colors are not generally considered unique or substantial enough to be covered by copyright law. However, a work that combines some of the elements, such as a logo or design, could possibly be eligible for copyright (and perhaps trademark) protection.

How Long Does Copyright Protection In The UK Last?

Because the UK is a signatory to the Berne Convention which covered this issue, a copyright in the UK will typically be protected for either the life of the author plus 70 years from the death of the author or, for published works, for 70 years from the date of first publication. However, there are many exceptions to this rule, and each work should be treated on a case-by-case basis if there are any doubts.

One notable UK-specific exception has to do with the boy who never grew up, Peter Pan. Author J.M. Barrie gifted all of the rights to his creation to a children’s hospital in London. When the original copyright expired in 1987, an extension was added to the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of 1988 mentioned above so that the hospital could continue to collect royalties based on uses of the work (though the hospital has no creative control over how the work is used). Ultimately, this is only an unusual — and perhaps endearingly British — exception to the normal copyright term.

Photo by Christian Battaglia on Unsplash. (Large preview)

What Is Fair Dealing?

The copyright laws of almost all countries allow exceptions for certain permitted uses of copyrighted works such as news reporting, educational uses, or where the use of the work is de minimus. In the United States, one can assert a “fair use” defense if accused of infringing a copyright if the use was due to one of these permitted activities. In the UK, these permitted activities fall under the legal concept known as “fair dealing.” According to the University of Nottingham, eligible activities which can be conducted without infringing a copyrighted work include:

  • Private and research study purposes;
  • Performance, copies or lending for educational purposes;
  • Criticism and news reporting;
  • Incidental inclusion;
  • Copies and lending by librarians;
  • Format shifting or back up of a work you own for personal use;
  • Caricature, parody or pastiche;
  • Acts for the purposes of royal commissions, statutory enquiries, judicial proceedings and parliamentary purposes;
  • Recording of broadcasts for the purposes of listening to or viewing at a more convenient time;
  • Producing a back-up copy for personal use of a computer program.

How Does “Fair Dealing” Affect Technology Copyrights In The UK?

The “fair dealing” exceptions mentioned above may specifically impact copyrights for technology-related works such as software programs or databases. For example, producing a backup copy of a software program for personal use only would not be considered copyright infringement under a fair dealing exception. Though fair dealing explicitly excludes decompilation or copying a software program during decompilation, the European Software Directive allows software licensees to use their copy of the software “to observe study or test the functioning of the program” in order to “determine the ideas and principles which underlie any element of the program.”

Therefore, users may freely observe a program as it operates to determine their functions and its underlying ideas, even if the goal is to create a competing program (see the UK case SAS Institute v. World Programming for more information on this concept). However, actual copying, for example in the case of source code copying, is not tolerated since this is explicitly protected by copyright.

For practical reasons, database copyrights would not be infringed if a person with the legal right to use part or all of a database performs steps necessary to use or access the contents of the database. Also, accessing a database for the purposes of private study or non-commercial research does not infringe copyright in a database.

Photo by rawpixel.com on Unsplash. (Large preview)

Moral Rights In The UK

Another difference between the UK and other parts of the world with regard to copyright law is the UK’s emphasis on the importance of moral rights. Though this issue may not often arise in technology-related copyright disputes, moral rights are additional rights over and above the economic rights typically protected by copyright law.

In the UK, moral rights are: the right to attribution, or the right to be known or recognized as the author of a work; the right to object to derogatory treatment of a work, which includes any addition, deletion, or adaptation of a work that would distort or “mutilate” the work or injure the honor or reputation of the author; the right to object to false attribution, which basically means that you would not be named as the author of something you didn’t create; and the right to privacy of certain photographs and recordings, such as those commissioned for a private occasion.

One reason moral rights might be important for developers is that the moral right to attribution gives the developer the right to be named as the author of the software program, even though it is not common industry practice to do so. By the same token, if a developer doesn’t get their name associated with projects they didn’t work on, the right to object to false attribution protects them also. Find more information about moral rights here.

It is our hope that this information has been helpful for UK software designers and developers. Though this is only introductory information, and should not be substituted for legal counsel in the event of specific questions or disputes, education about copyright law issues and other IP issues helps to empower software designers and developers to make sure their works are fully protected.

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Copyright Law Basics For UK Software Developers

Building A Static Site With Components Using Nunjucks

It’s quite popular these days, and dare I say a damn fine idea, to build sites with components. Rather than building out entire pages one by one, we build a system of components (think: a search form, an article card, a menu, a footer) and then piece together the site with those components.

JavaScript frameworks like React and Vue emphasize this idea heavily. But even if you don’t use any client-side JavaScript at all to build a site, it doesn’t mean you have to give up on the idea of building with components! By using an HTML preprocessor, we can build a static site and still get all the benefits of abstracting our site and its content into re-usable components.

Static sites are all the rage these days, and rightfully so, as they are fast, secure, and inexpensive to host. Even Smashing Magazine is a static site, believe it or not!

Let’s take a walk through a site I built recently using this technique. I used CodePen Projects to build it, which offers Nunjucks as a preprocessor, which was perfectly up for the job.

This is a microsite. It doesn’t need a full-blown CMS to handle hundreds of pages. It doesn’t need JavaScript to handle interactivity. But it does need a handful of pages that all share the same layout.

Consistent header and footer

Consistent header and footer across all pages

HTML alone doesn’t have a good solution for this. What we need are imports. Languages like PHP make this simple with things like <?php include "header.php"; ?>, but static file hosts don’t run PHP (on purpose) and HTML alone is no help. Fortunately, we can preprocess includes with Nunjucks.

Importing components into pages

Importing components is possible in languages like PHP

It makes perfect sense here to create a layout, including chunks of HTML representing the header, navigation, and footer. Nunjucks templating has the concept of blocks, which allow us to slot in content into that spot when we use the layout.

  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <title>The Power of Serverless</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="/styles/style.processed.css">
  % include "./template-parts/_header.njk" %
  % include "./template-parts/_nav.njk" %
  % block content %
  % endblock %
  % include "./template-parts/_footer.njk" %

Notice the files that are included are named like _file.njk. That’s not entirely necessary. It could be header.html or icons.svg, but they are named like this because 1) files that start with underscores are a bit of-of a standard way of saying they are a partial. In CodePen Projects, it means they won’t try to be compiled alone. 2) By naming it .njk, we could use more Nunjucks stuff in there if we want to.

None of these bits have anything special in them at all. They are just little bits of HTML intended to be used on each of our four pages.

  <p>Just a no-surprises footer, people. Nothing to see here.<p>

Done this way, we can make one change and have the change reflected on all four pages.

Using The Layout For The Four Pages

Now each of our four pages can be a file. Let’s just start with index.njk though, which in CodePen Projects, will automatically be processed and create an index.html file every time you save.

The index.njk file

Starting off with an index.njk file

Here’s what we could put in index.njk to use the layout and drop some content in that block:

% extends "_layout.njk" %

% block content %
<h1>Hello, World!</h1>
% endblock % 

That will buy us a fully functional home page! Nice! Each of the four pages can do the same exact thing, but putting different content in the block, and we have ourselves a little four-page site that is easy to manage.

Compiled index.html

The index.njk file gets compiled into index.html

For the record, I’m not sure I’d call these little chunks we re-using components. We’re just being efficient and breaking up a layout into chunks. I think of a component more like a re-usable chunk that accepts data and outputs a unique version of itself with that data. We’ll get to that.

Making Active Navigation

Now that we’ve repeated an identical chunk of HTML on four pages, is it possible to apply unique CSS to individual navigation items to identify the current page? We could with JavaScript and looking at window.location and such, but we can do this without JavaScript. The trick is putting a class on the <body> unique to each page and using that in the CSS.

In our _layout.njk we have the body output a class name as a variable:

<body class=" body_class }">

Then before we call that layout on an indivdiual page, we set that variable:

% set body_class = "home" %
% extends "_layout.njk" %

Let’s say our navigation was structured like

<nav class="site-nav">
    <li class="nav-home">
      <a href="/">

Now we can target that link and apply special styling as needed by doing:

body.home .nav-home a,
body.services .nav-services a  /* continue matching classes for all pages... */
  /* unique active state styling */

Active state styling on navigation
Styling navigation links with an active class.

Oh and those icons? Those are just individual .svg files I put in a folder and included like

% include "../icons/cloud.svg" %

And that allows me to style them like:

  fill: white;

Assuming the SVG elements inside have no fill attributes already on them.

Authoring Content In Markdown

The homepage of my microsite has a big chunk of content on it. I could certainly write and maintain that in HTML itself, but sometimes it’s nice to leave that type of thing to Markdown. Markdown feels cleaner to write and perhaps a bit easier to look at when it’s lots of copy.

This is very easy in CodePen Projects. I made a file that ends in .md, which will automatically be processed into HTML, then included that in the index.njk file.

Markdown compiled into HTML on CodePen Projects
Files in markdown get compiled into HTML on CodePen Projects.
% block content %
<main class="centered-text-column"> 
% include "content/about.html" % 
% endblock %

Building Actual Components

Let’s consider components to be repeatable modules that as passed in data to create themselves. In frameworks like Vue, you’d be working with single file components that are isolated bits of templated HTML, scoped CSS, and component-specific JavaScript. That’s super cool, but our microsite doesn’t need anything that fancy.

We need to create some “cards” based on a simple template, so we can build things like this:

Card style components

Creating repeatable components with templates

Building a repeatable component like that in Nunjucks involves using what they call Macros. Macros are deliciously simple. They are like as if HTML had functions!

% macro card(title, content) %
<div class="card">
  <h2> title }</h2>
  <p> content }</p>
% endmacro %

Then you call it as needed:

 card('My Module', 'Lorem ipsum whatever.') }

The whole idea here is to separate data and markup. This gives us some pretty clear, and tangible benefits:

  1. If we need to make a change to the HTML, we can change it in the macro and it gets changed everywhere that uses that macro.
  2. The data isn’t tangled up in markup
  3. The data could come from anywhere! We code the data right into calls to the macros as we’ve done above. Or we could reference some JSON data and loop over it. I’m sure you could even imagine a setup in which that JSON data comes from a sort of headless CMS, build process, serverless function, cron job, or whatever.

Now we have these repeatable cards that combine data and markup, just what we need:

Data and markup for the component is kept separate

HTML is controlled in the macro, while data can come from anywhere

Make As Many Components As You Like

You can take this idea and run with it. For example, imagine how Bootstrap is essentially a bunch of CSS that you follow HTML patterns in which to use. You could make each of those patterns a macro and call them as needed, essentially componentizing the framework.

You can nest components if you like, embracing a sort of atomic design philosophy. Nunjucks offers logic as well, meaning you can create conditional components and variations just by passing in different data.

In the simple site I made, I made a different macro for the ideas section of the site because it involved slightly different data and a slightly different card design.

Card components in Ideas section

It’s possible to create as many components as you want

A Quick Case Against Static Sites

I might argue that most sites benefit from a component-based architecture, but only some sites are appropriate for being static. I work on plenty of sites in which having back-end languages is appropriate and useful.

One of my sites, CSS-Tricks, has things like a user login with a somewhat complex permissions system: forums, comments, eCommerce. While none of those things totally halt the idea of working staticly, I’m often glad I have a database and back-end languages to work with. It helps me build what I need and keeps things under one roof.

Go Forth And Embrace The Static Life!

Remember that one of the benefits of building in the way we did in this article is that the end result is just a bunch of static files. Easy to host, fast, and secure. Yet, we didn’t have to give up working in a developer-friendly way. This site will be easy to update and add to in the future.

  • The final project is a microsite called The Power of Serverless for Front-End Developers (https://thepowerofserverless.info/).
  • Static file hosting, if you ask me, is a part of the serverless movement.
  • You can see all the code (and even fork a copy for yourself) right on CodePen. It is built, maintained, and hosted entirely on CodePen using CodePen Projects.
  • CodePen Projects handles all the Nunjucks stuff we talked about here, and also things like Sass processing and image hosting, which I took advantage of for the site. You could replicate the same with, say, a Gulp or Grunt-based build process locally. Here’s a boilerplate project like that you could spin up.
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Building A Static Site With Components Using Nunjucks

Get a Glimpse into the Future of PPC From Microsoft’s Senior Manager of Global Engagement

Purna Virji on AI and PPC
As I learned at the start of February, if you’re a lucky enough to get one-on-one time with Purna Virji, Senior Manager of Global Engagement at Microsoft, you ask her about the future of search, AI, and pay per click (because she makes everything sound pretty exciting).

Purna—named the #1 most influential PPC expert in the world by PPC Hero in 2016—is on the forefront of what’s coming down the pipeline in our industry. She’s joining us February 21st as a speaker for Marketing Optimization Week to share her insight into AI, and today we’re sharing a sneak peek of what to expect in that session.

Watch our chat below, or read on for the condensed Q&A.

Jen: What do you imagine the day-to-day life of a marketer will be like with access to exciting AI? You grab your morning coffee, log on to your computer, then what?

Purna: [Then] you’ll be getting all kinds of wonderful notifications about performance, new insights, and ideas for engaging with your audience. AI solves some of our biggest problems—including [how to] engage with people in this world full of distractions.

AI is super helpful because it can analyze all of the different data and touchpoints to see what’s working (or not), and it can help us get really good at personalization and engaging with people in the way they’d like to be engaged with.

It also gives us new interfaces. Things like chatbots or digital assistants, as well as virtual reality. So if I interest somebody through a chatbot to look at the latest collection of shoes, I can just put on my HoloLens and take a look at a 3D hologram in front of me of all the latest styles.

It’s really about cool ways to engage with brands and people in a very seamless manner.

Jen: You’re speaking at Unbounce’s Marketing Optimization Week February 21st on how to prepare for AI’s emerging role in marketing. As a preview, can you share one of those things we can all prep for?

Purna: Yes! I think one of the things marketers can prepare for is to understand what AI can do for us and try to touch the waters a bit more with a chatbot. [In my talk] I’ll be giving people some tips for how to incorporate a chatbot within search. For example, Bing offers a conversational bot right in the SERPs, so I’ll give some tips on how you can set this up and a strategy you can use for your bot.

Jen: Chatbots are very hot right now.

Purna: It’s because they’re so easy and convenient. You’re already using a platform you’re familiar with—whether it’s Skype or Facebook Messenger or Kik—or whatever platform you use to talk to your friends. In that same platform, I can order a pizza or check on a status of my order, or do anything I need to do with a brand in that same place. There’s no multiple hops that have to happen.

Jen: It seems like, for customers, chat is very natural. It’s how we already go about our world.

Purna: yes—conversation is the first thing we learn. From babies to now arguing about who’s going to take the trash out. Conversation is [still] at the forefront of all of our lives.

Jen: Here at Unbounce we’re a Conversion Platform for marketers, and many of our customers pair landing pages with PPC in social or search. How do you see AI impacting pay per click the most in the next few years?

Purna: I think AI will have a couple of different roles…

For one —it’s going to make it easier to hone into the right person. We’re already seeing some signs of this with our much more advanced audience targeting, such as in-market audiences—which lets you slice and dice audiences based on people who are more likely to buy —so it’s going to [enhance] reaching the right person at the right time.

It’s also going to help us take a lot of the effort and pain out of the administrative side. We saw this with bit automations…it’ll make things like reporting a lot easier, keyword research a lot easier. Anything that’s really a repetitive task can get automated and can be improved by AI. Time savings and more effective ads – it’s a win win for all.

Jen: Y’know, we hear some marketers kind of demonize AI, or see it in a sort of detrimental way. But you don’t see it this way.

Purna: No, I don’t think so. I think the way AI has been designed and actually, the way companies like Microsoft, Google or IBM, who are at the forefront of creating AI…I think the responsibility is on people like us to infuse the technology to respect humans. And, I mean, that’s one of the pillars we’re building our AI on, that it is respectful to the human. It’s there to augment what we can do. It’s not there to replace us or destroy us or anything like that.

All AI is doing is taking what we’re good at and giving us a little super power. It’s like wearing a little jet pack so we can run faster or slide faster. When you think of it that way it’s giving us gifts we didn’t have access to before.

Jen: You’re no stranger to setting up an AdWords or Bing campaign. So, what’s a little known technique that anyone managing paid spend can do today for more impact with their PPC ads?

Purna: I’d say there are two things. The first is to make sure you’re implementing in-market audiences. If someone was to ask me, “what’s one tip for success for 2018?”, I’m a big believer of the power of in-market audiences, it’s still in pilot in open beta so anyone can sign up an be a part of it and test it.

Throughout the testing period we’ve seen such amazing results from many people. It allows you to reach an audience that’s in the market or looking to buy specific products or services you’re selling. We have over 120 different categories, so if you just layer them onto your existing ad groups or campaigns and just adjust the bids accordingly, you have a better chance of reaching people who are interested in what you sell but may not know who you are…you’re just reaching this very qualified audience.

If you can do [this] and combine it with the wonderful landing page learnings you get with Unbounce, I think that’s a really win win solution.

Jen: We know voice search is going to have a much bigger role to play. What should PPC’ers be thinking about to prepare for this?

Purna: We are seeing voice being adopted more and more. We’ve seen Mary Meeker’s internet study…and Google [has shared] that 20% of their mobile traffic is voice now, because voice is easy.

I would say PPC marketers should think about the differences or what’s unique to voice. First, it tends to be much more local. If you’re running local campaigns, you’ll want to think about the queries relating to your business that people may ask if they’re in a hurry or on the go.

And second, all marketers (including SEOs too) should consider: are we providing the right information? I.e. do we have some sort of structured data or schema markup that can give the search engine much more insights into understanding what the page or information is about.

Lastly, [we can] look at the keywords. Voice is of course more conversational and with conversational queries, we tend to have longer phrases, [so] we’re much more clear on the intent. If you can, look at testing some of the most common, broader questions or phrases that get asked and actually test adding them in keywords. Ask yourself what could be the right way to answer [the query].

In the old days (ha, just last year!) we would look for shoes, like mens sandals. We’d go to the website, select colours, size and width. But now with voice, you self-select in the query itself. You say “show me blue strappy summer sandals in size 8”. If I then [have] to go to the website and do the selections again I’m quite annoyed, but if I got to a page that showed just what I was looking for? It’s about making it very seamless for the customer.

Jen: so prepare for more granularity…
Purna: exactly, [it’s] on page as well, which is why it’s important to look at some of the landing page options you have, [and ask] —“are we answering the right questions” in the right way.

Jen: You’ve seen dozens of landing pages for PPC. What do you think is the biggest mistake people make when creating landing pages to pair with their search ads?

Purna: It’s not being specific enough. If [someone’s] looking for something and your ad promises something, does your page deliver on that promise?

For example, if I’m doing a search for waterproof digital cameras and see an ad that talks about waterproof digital cameras on sale, and I go on your landing page and its all of your digital cameras —again you’re giving the searcher more work to do.

You want to make life as easy as possible, answer the right questions, and don’t go too broad. Yes – there’s the temptation, especially with newbie PPC marketers— Let’s just send people to the homepage. As you know that’s just not going to work and they’ll realize that soon.

Also, as you say, the call to action—even sales people fail at this sometimes—you don’t or forget to ask exactly what you want [visitors] to do. So making sure you do that is a huge advantage.

Don’t miss Purna’s session February 21st as part of Marketing Optimization Week. She’ll be joining other experts from Drift, Hanapin, and Emma delivering the latest tactics you can use to see better results. See the agenda here.

Original source:

Get a Glimpse into the Future of PPC From Microsoft’s Senior Manager of Global Engagement

How to Build a Sticky SaaS Product

It’s Day 4 of Product Marketing Month. Today’s post examines churn, and accelerating your customer’s Time to Value. — Unbounce co-founder Oli Gardner

What’s The Easiest Way to Make a Sticky Product?

Build a product and call it a Sticky Bar. Look over there >>

With that dad joke out of the way, I want to talk about some important SaaS metrics, that will help product marketers understand what is or isn’t sticky about the products you’re building. I’m also going to talk about how to find some clues in your data, and finally how we’ve been working on fixing our own stickiness problems at Unbounce.

What makes a SaaS product sticky?

In short, it’s a product that becomes part of someone’s daily routine. Something they can’t do as good or enjoyable a job without. It’s something they need. But even more than that, it’s something they love. And that love comes from two main places; either it’s a one-of-a-kind solution that’s simply awesome, or it’s a many-of-a-kind solution that includes a superior customer experience.

Unless you’re selling frying pans, having a product that isn’t sticky just means that you have a churn problem.

Why do people churn from a SaaS product?

There are many reasons why someone would decide to stop paying you money every month, and a great way to find out what they are is simply to ask. At Unbounce we have an in-app cancellation survey that gets seen by anyone who downgrades to free from a paid plan. It’s a single open-ended question: “What is your reason for downgrading?

On average, about 27% of people answer the question. Here’s a pie chart showing the breakdown of responses over a 6-month period.

There are some fascinating responses in there, but the one that stands out the most is the “Under-Utilized” (31.40%) category. This is the response you don’t want to hear. They were using it, and probably deriving value from it, but they weren’t using it enough to warrant an ongoing subscription.

We noticed that certain cohorts of customers were more likely to see fluctuating value from using landing pages. This could be due to an irregular number or timing of campaigns, so when there’s nothing going on, they cancel or downgrade their plan. They may come back again, many do, but the inconsistent behavior – known as flapping – can be a symptom of a product that isn’t fully sticky.

It could also be because they were not able to effectively calculate or realize the ROI of our solution properly, which can happen when customers are running campaigns not directly tied to paid spend. When there is money involved, it’s easier to calculate your returns, speeding up the time to value (TTV).

Increase Stickiness by Reducing Time to Value (TTV)

Time to Value (TTV) is the velocity of a customer seeing the value from your product – how long does it take them to get to those ah-ha moments that make them see the benefit?

It’s a great way to think from the customer’s perspective. The tough part is discovering what those ah-ha moments are. But when you do, product marketing has its mission.

When your TTV goes down, your stickiness and your LTV (Lifetime Value) goes up.

One of the ah-ha moments we’ve identified for Unbounce is when people get inside the builder, and they see how easy, yet how powerful and customizable it is. The problem is, they don’t get to see that until they slap down a credit card.

To amplify this, we just released a preview mode of our builder, designed specifically to help shorten the TTV.

You can check it out at preview.unbounce.com.

If you click the image, you’ll notice that upon arrival, you see a popup with a welcome message and a bit of contextual information about where you are and what you can do.

Speaking of popups, I’ve heard this question a lot in the past 6 months:

“Why did you choose popups and sticky bars as your next products?”

Why did we choose popups and sticky bars?

With the landing page product, we knew we’d solved the pain of customers increasing conversions for their paid traffic, but those same customers (and their teams) also need ways to optimize the organic traffic they already have.

Popups and sticky bars are both tools that have a short time to value, for three reasons:

  1. They are less complex than a landing page (to build and to understand)
  2. Most businesses get more traffic to their website than they do to their landing pages, so they’ll see conversions coming in more quickly
  3. After installing a single line of Javascript, you can place them anywhere on your site without technical help.

If you remember back to the chart at the beginning, 4.45% of canceling customers said they had “poor campaign performance”. This is important to note because getting something up and running quickly and easily is one thing, but being successful – especially as a marketer – is another thing altogether.

Which is why our job as product marketers doesn’t stop until the customer is being successful using your software.

The other way to increase product stickiness

I mentioned earlier about needing to provide a superior customer experience, especially in a crowded competitive landscape. You need to have a company people trust more than the competition, and trust comes from transparency, security, reliability, and just giving a human shit about your customers.

I love how Andy Raskin puts it in his recent post about “The greatest sales pitch I’ve seen all year, it’s Drift’s and it’s brilliant”:

Product differentiation, by itself, has become indefensible because today’s competitors can copy your better, faster, cheaper features virtually instantly. Now, the only thing they can’t replicate is the trust that customers feel for you and your team. Ultimately, that’s born not of a self-centered mission statement like “We want to be best-in-class X” or “to disrupt Y,” but of a culture whose beating heart is a strategic story that casts your customer as the world-changing hero.

How are you reducing your time to value (TTV)?

I’d love to know the techniques you’re using to discover your ah-ha moments, and what you’re doing to accelerate your customers’ access to them. Lemme know in the comments.

Oli Gardner


How to Build a Sticky SaaS Product

A Sneak-Peek Inside The Southeast Asian Web Community

A few weeks ago, Vitaly Friedman (co-founder of this little magazine) and I had the pleasure to join the Mozilla’s Developer Roadshow, traveling through four countries in Southeast Asia in just two weeks. We visited cities that are buzzing with life and met people who share our passion for the web. Our mission: To get up close with the Southeast Asian web community. We wanted to learn how different local communities are compared to Europe and the US.

This article is from:

A Sneak-Peek Inside The Southeast Asian Web Community

How Do I Know If Venture Capital Fits My Business?

There is a popular image in the world of software which many young and inexperienced entrepreneurs are becoming infatuated with. It’s the idea that when you come up with an awesome idea, the highest peak to strive for — the ultimate goal — is getting in front of a venture capitalist and receiving a huge lump sum to propel your business to unimaginable heights and bring tremendous personal wealth. Well then, let’s explore what it really means to fund your business with equity capital.

Link – 

How Do I Know If Venture Capital Fits My Business?

4 Ways to Use Typefaces on Your Landing Page to Elevate Your Brand

There’s a reason you can recognize an Apple ad right away. Same with Nike and Airbnb. A big part of that is because of imagery, copy, and layout, but typefaces play a huge role as well.

Although the ROI of having a strong brand is harder to measure than, say, clear button copy, it’s telling that some of the most respected companies in the world have strong design cultures and distinct aesthetics.

Brand recognition via typefaces and design

Examples of Apple and Nike’s on-brand design aesthetics.

When designing landing pages, you need them to be on-brand, pixel for pixel. Great design is often a tell-tale sign of more sophisticated marketing (and can give you an easier time getting conversions as it can help convey that you’re well established). One of the most obvious elements that need complete design versatility on your landing pages is your typeface.

This is why Unbounce launched built-in Google fonts in September of this year. Now there are 840+ fonts to choose from for all your text and button needs, straight from the text editor’s properties panel:

New Google Fonts in the Unbounce builder

For some inspiration on how to best use this newfound world of hundreds of fonts, we’re passing the mic to some of our in-house designers at Unbounce. See what they have to say about everything from the best fonts for creating a visual hierarchy to how your text can communicate emotion. Plus see what types of fonts they’re excited to use in their upcoming design work in the builder.

Break the rules where possible

Cesar Martinez, Senior Art Director here at Unbounce, hears a lot of talk about rules. But they’re not the be-all-and-end-all. As he tells us:

“Often when discussing typography with my peers, I hear about all sorts of design principles, some of which I’ve always challenged myself to learn almost as commandments. I realized that is very easy to fall into a vortex of overused principles of visual communication that can potentially damage your integrity (or what some call originality) as a brand.

When designing landing pages that need to feel especially branded or out of the box, try breaking these rules every now and then
(then A/B test to see what works and doesn’t). For example, you could use more than two typefaces in one paragraph, break the kerning on your headers, use a big bold-ass serif on a semi-black background and see how it looks with a thin handmade brushed calligraphic font as the subheader…I know it sounds crazy, but this can lead to unexpected results and it’s something I’m really looking forward to doing with the builder’s new built-in Google fonts.”

Some of Cesar’s favorite out-of-the-box examples of typography?

“I love what ILOVEDUST does when it comes to typography. I also recommend reading Pretty Ugly2 as an introspection of “bad” typography applications that succeed in the way they communicate a visual idea.”

Which font is Cesar most excited to use in the builder? A few: Roboto, Playfair, and Abril Fatface.

Try Roboto, Playfair and more in your next landing page design. See how to create a landing page in Unbounce and experiment with typefaces in a free 30 day trial.

Use fewer fonts to clarify information hierarchy

Denise Villanueva, a Product Designer, created our Unbounce Academy with clear and consistent hierarchy in mind.

“Good typography is the most straightforward way to create a clear content hierarchy. That, above anything else, should be the main criteria of choosing typefaces for your brand.”

Denise provided some specific pointers to help you achieve sound content hierarchy on your landing pages:


“When in doubt, using one font family in 2–3 weights (or two font families in 1-2 weights) will work the vast majority of the time. Using more than three typefaces can be distracting and chaotic — avoid doing it.”

As an example, Unbounce’s Fitspo template features the Raleway font (in all caps for headers and sentence case for regular body copy) and a clear, attention-grabbing header with supporting sections that guide you further down the page. Think of it as presenting your information in clearly defined levels that are easy to read.

Unbounce's Fitspo landing page template

Create a new landing page fast with the Fitspo template — or browse through other stunning designs you can use today.

Give someone all the feels with typographic details

For Denis Suhopoljac, our Principal User Experience Designer, using the right typography can evoke feelings in your audience:

Denis Suhopoljac

“Typefaces are all about composition, harmony, and mood rolled into one. By matching the right typography traits with voice, style and tone of a brand, you can enhance the wit, humor, or seriousness of a piece of copy. When it’s done right, typography makes your copy (and your entire brand experience) legible, readable, and appealing.”

Typefaces can convey emotion

Different fonts convey different types of emotions via text — what do these typefaces make you think of? Professionalism? Reliability? Playfulness? Timelessness?

Try incorporating typeface as part of your message

To Ainara Sáinz, our Interactive Designer, good typography can do double duty and save you from having to use other supporting imagery.

Ainara Sainz“If typography is done well, you don’t always need extra elements like images, backgrounds or even colors to reinforce the message. And sometimes, the execution is so flawless that the audience might not even need to know how to read to understand and feel the message behind it. Like Ji Lee’s Word as Image project—just… wow.”

Image via Ji Lee’s Word as Image project.

Your landing pages can make use of stunning fonts too

Having solid branding does wonders for a brand’s credibility, and our customers have been telling us that they want to get in on the action. Get into the builder today to explore the 840+ new typeface options available, and find your favourite pairings for your next landing page.

Original article: 

4 Ways to Use Typefaces on Your Landing Page to Elevate Your Brand

Confessions Of An Impostor

Five years ago, when, for the first time ever, I was invited to speak at one of the best front-end conferences in Europe, I had quite a mixture of feelings. Obviously, I was incredibly proud and happy: I had never had a chance to do this before for a diverse audience of people with different skillsets. But the other feelings I had were quite destructive.
I sincerely could not understand how I could be interesting to anyone: Even though I had been working in front-end for many years by then, I was very silent in the community.

Taken from:  

Confessions Of An Impostor

What You Need to Know About Visual Perception and Website Design

visual perception

There’s no lack of data to suggest how visual-oriented we are as humans. For instance, “90 percent of information transmitted to the brain is visual, and visuals are processed 60,000x faster in the brain than text.” Or this:  “65 percent of people are visual learners, and one of the best ways to drive messages home is through visual content.” This data helps explain why visual marketing has really exploded recently, and visual-centric content such as infographics are so popular. Seeing is one of our primary senses by which we intake information and understand the world. Basically, it’s a big deal….

The post What You Need to Know About Visual Perception and Website Design appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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What You Need to Know About Visual Perception and Website Design

Neil Patel’s Advanced Content Marketing Summit

The best part of attending a conference is getting all the latest juicy knowledge in one place, all at the same time, and before the rest of the world knows about it. When a conference is good, you frantically write down notes, future to-dos, new strategies and you can’t wait to get back to eagerly implement all your newfound knowledge. But then there are the down sides: Booking flights and hotel rooms Remembering to do all your expensing Forgetting something at home Completely fudging up your schedule Putting your dog in the kennel And the sheer exhaustion by the end…

The post Neil Patel’s Advanced Content Marketing Summit appeared first on The Daily Egg.

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Neil Patel’s Advanced Content Marketing Summit